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AP Art History Review Project: Minoan through Late Antiquity

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Crissy Peters

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of AP Art History Review Project: Minoan through Late Antiquity

The Art of Ancient Greece
Loss in art knowledge occurred during disintegration of Bronze Age
Result: little to no art created during this time in a period known as The Dark Age
The Geometric Period was the first art to come after The Dark Age
Characterized by a
return of the human figure to Greek art
,
abstract angular motifs
,
meandering
,
two dimensionality
, and
ceramic pottery
.
The Orientalizing Period-occurred due to a revitalization of Greek trade with the world
Characterized by: Egyptian/Near Eastern inspired motifs
Minoan - Late Antique
Minoan & Mycenaean
Art of the Prehistoric Aegean, Minoan, Greek, Roman, and Late Antique Periods
AP Art History Review Project
Prezi by Crissy,
Reizl & Aiyana

Minoan Art
Mycenaean Art
Vault of the tholos of treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 1300-1250 BCE.
Myron, Diskobolos (Disk Thrower), Roman copy of bronze original, 450 BCE, 5'1"
Sarcophagus with Reclining Couple, 520 BCE. Painted terracotta. 3' 9.5" x 6'7"
Arch of Constantine, Rome , Italy, 312-315 CE
Dionysiac mystery frieze, Pompeii, Italy, 60-50 BCE, 5' 4"
Made without motor, cobbled vault
Relieving triangle above entrance way held weight of structure
Largest dome structure until the pantheon and currently the largest know vault without interior support
The vault had been thoroughly looted before its modern discovery, but artifacts found in similar vaults hint at what would have been found in the treasury of Atreus -- weapons and symbols of war -- attests to their war-focused culture
The Geometric and Orientalizing Periods
Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete
highly advanced culture
natural harbors suggest mercantile economy
flourished from 27th century BCE - 15th century BCE
rapid collapse after volcanic eruption
rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist
Sir Arthur Evans
- made up romantic chronology of the island of Crete and the site unearthed at Knossos
Geometric Krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, 740 BCE, Geometric Period
One of the earliest examples of a krater- a mixing bowl that marked graves
Shows technological achievement and high status of the deceased
Almost all of the surface is covered in precisely painted angular figures
Scene depicts people mourning a man laid on his bier and a procession in his honor
Palace at Knossos, Crete, ca. 1700 - 1400 BCE
First great Western European civilization
Minotaur legend - Theseus & Ariadne
Labyrinth myth is likely derived from intricate hallways and rooms
No defensive structures
Palace planned around central court
rough,unshaped stones embedded in clay
advanced system to drain rainwater
Bull-leaping, palace at Knossos, Crete, ca. 1450 - 1400. Fresco, 2"6.
Maktiklos Apollo, from Thebes, Greece, Bronze, 700-680 BCE, Orientalizing Period
Elongated, curvilinear shape to accentuate motion and energy
Conventions of Egyptians transformed into full bodies and elasticity
Only fragments were excavated; full image is a product of Sir Arthur Evans
Unknown significance - could be a ritual or sport
The Archaic Period (800-480 BCE)
period of ancient Greek history that followed the Greek Dark Ages
saw the rise of the polis (city-states) and the founding of colonies
Statuary
follow the canonical Egyptian format
Statues replaced large vases of the Geometric era as preferred grave markers
Architecture
most early Greek temples did not survive
differed from other temples in that the altar was on outside at east end - facing rising sun
Doric (mainland) v. Ionic (Aegean islands)
Kouros ca. 600 BCE (left) emulates the Egyptian portrait of Mentuemhet ca. 650 BCE (right)
Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece,
ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 6'4" high.
Kouros statue to mark death of warrior
Archaic smile
Would have been painted with encaustic, pigment mixed with wax
Emulates Egyptian canonical style but naturally modeled to depict realistic musculature - a style which is perfected during Greek art
Art of the Etruscans & Pompeii
Temple of Hera I, ("Basilica"), Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE
retains entire petripetal columnade
heaviness is a characteristic of Archaic temples
temple's elevation is characterized by heavy, closely spaced columns with a pronounced swelling (
entasis
) at the middle of the shafts
parallel manner of architecture is developed again in the sixth century CE (Romanesque)
Early & High Classical Periods
Polykleitos, Doryphoros , Roman copy from Pompeii, Italy after a bronze original, 450-440 BCE, 6'11"
The Late Classical Period
The Hellenistic Period
(323 - 31 BCE.)
Alexandros of Antioch, Aphrodite
(
Venus de Milo
), ca. 150-125 BCE. Marble.
Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy,
ca. 100-50 BCE. Bronze, approx. 4'1''
Early Etruscan Art
Later Etruscan Art
Capitoline Wolf, ca. 500-480 BCE. Bronze.
Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius
Early Roman Empire
Augustus of Prima Porta, Primaporta, Italy, copy of bronze original, 20 BCE, Marble
Romans and Late Antiquity
I'M GREAT FOR ESSAYS!
USE ME FOR
REPRESENTATIONS
OF THE HUMAN BODY!
A bronze statuette dedicated to Apollo by a man named Mantiklos
Long hair framing the unnaturally long neck and pectoral muscles that define a stylized torso
Triangular face had inlaid eye sockets at one point
"Opps we forgot how to art"
Philoxenos of Eretria, Battle of Issus, Roman Copy, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 310 BCE. Mosaic
Depicts the she-wolf who, according to legend, nursed the eventual founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus, as infants
Made for the new Roman Republic after the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus to act as a totem
Stylized fur on neck and tense muscles
Ara Pacis Agustae (Altar of Augustan Peace), 13-9 BCE
Celebrated Augustus' establishment of peace
Figural reliefs and acanthus tendrils decorate the altar's surrounding walls
One relief depicts Aeneas, one of Augustus' forefathers, making a sacrifice- a big part of his political ideology
Also includes a procession of the imperial family
Roman Republic (509-27 BCE)
Head of a Roman patrician, ca. 75-50 BCE. Marble.
Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar, 44 BCE. Silver.
loved Greek art
blended Etruscan roots with Greek culture to form their own
concrete construction
!
fiercely proud of ancestry
Republican verism (left)
Caesar breaks with traditions (right)
This would be a great example for portraying power & authority in culture!
^connect breaking of traditional represenation to Akhenaton!
propagandistic
- connect to Ashoka's pillars or Angkor Wat (a temple erected during the rule of Cambodian King Angkor Wat to associate him with the Hindu god Vishnu)
propaganda
breaking with traditions
representations of the human body
religion
symbolism/
allegory
Pont-du-Gard (above) and Colosseum, (below) are examples of
new technologies
(concrete) - connect to tubed paint facilitating impressionism movement 19th century (ex. Monet)
Period after Alexander the Great's conquests and the fragmentation of empire
characterized by dramatic sculpture morning the fall of the Greek empire (it became a Roman colony in 146 BCE and never returned to its former glory)
Greek sculptors began creating copies of great works to supply the growing demand of the Roman Empire
EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife, ca. 230-220 BCE.
overtly sexual
intentionally teasing the viewer
Aphrodite held apple of Paris - deemed most beautiful goddess
theme of
women in art
- connect to other Venus depictions (Venus of Urbino, Olympia) or African Mother and Child - same purpose, VERY different interpretations
OH HOW THE MIGHTY GREEK HAVE FALLEN
Late Empire
olives

similar fashion

similar language

kings led city-state

pre-Greek

traders
2800 BCE
2000 BCE
water-based lifestyle
Island of Crete
labyrinth to protect palace
rulers were priest-kings
polytheistic
no walls to protect
similar to Athens
Greek lowlands
warrior-culture
relied on hunting
walled cities to protect
similar to Sparta
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome, Italy, 359, Marble
Typology- pairing of Old and New Testament scenes
Anagogical axis- spiritual/ holy axis
Sarcophagus for an upper class Christian
One of the first examples of upper class christian art
Christ as the Good Shepherd, Mosaic from the entrance wall of Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna, Italy, 425
Lunette above the entrance of the Mausoleum
Jesus sits among his flock, haloed and robed in gold and purple- imperial colors
Sheep distributed in loose and informal groups of three- trinity reference
Greco-Roman illusionistic devices- a foreground and background beneath a blue sky and three-dimensional
The Art of Late Antiquity
Due to the large diversity of the population the empire becomes more multicultural
Religion becomes a popular theme in art, especially Christianity
Mosaics and religious architecture (churches) are popular art forms of this time
Interior of Santa Costanza, Rome, Italy, 337-351
Use of tesserae- tiny stones or pieces of glass cut to the desired size and shape
Floor mosaic; copy of original panel painting for King Cassander
Subtle modulation, weighty figures and recession into space
Battle between the Hellenic League and the Achaemenid Persia in the second great battle of Alexander's conquest of Asia
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, Roman Copy, 350-340 BCE, Marble
Obsession with the "perfect" body apparent in sculptures of this time
Gods and Goddesses retain their superhuman beauty, but are portrayed more sensuous
Discovered the correct mathematical formula for constructing temples
Casting statues of bronze and terracotta excelled at this time
Art was fewer in numbers due to political and economic downfall
Chimera of Arezzo, Arezzo, Italy, Bronze, mid 4th century BCE
Emperors commissioned public works like bridges, temples, forums, etc. more than ever before
Imperial portraits and arches were covered in reliefs recounting the emperors deeds- to remind people how good they were
Art and architecture used for
propaganda
The Mycenaeans became the dominant culture on Crete after the fall of the Minoans
The palaces built on the mainland of Greece suggest that the Myceneaens have been around since the second millennium BCE.
The thick walls and miniscule entrances of the fortified citadels suggest that the Mycenaeans were a war-like culture
Considered the high point in Greek history - the Persian war was won and there was an emergence of the great philosophers, historians, and architects of the Greek age
Depicting the perfect human body became even more dominant
Poses shifted from stiff and unnatural to a more realistic depiction of how a human actually stands
Contrapposto
- a weight shift, or counterbalance
An action statue, he breaks the stiff sphere of his surroundings
suggests a coiled spring with profile arms and frontal chest
Frozen in action, two intersecting arcs of his arms suggests a bow the moment before the string is released
Tree trunk support added by Romans because the marble copies were to heavy to support themselves unlike the bronze originals
Polykleitos created a canon which illustrated the ideal body; the Doryphoros is the embodiment of Polykleitos canon.
Chiaroscuro
, or an intense cross-balance, applied to statue
The culmination of greek advancements in statue making
A theme of
representations of the human body
, seen throughout all the cultures, such as in Seated Khafre
Due to successful mining of iron, tin, copper, and silver, the Etruscan developed into a very wealthy society
Jewelry was popular in the Etruscan culture, as well as elaborate temples to their Gods
Etruscan tombs often resembled houses for the living, complete with carved renditions of kitchen utensils. This helped historians understand the culture
Eventually they were overtaken by the Romans, affected the art of the Etruscans and eventually art became indistinguishable between the Romans and Etruscans
Elaborate sarcophagi were created although only the ashes were placed inside - contrasts with Greek treatment of the dead with simple graves marked by a steele or statue.
Man and woman are equal and look like they actually love each other; this was unheard of in most other cultures at the time
Top portions of bodies are highly animated and advanced while the bottom half is weird and unnatural
Comparison can be made between this couple and Menkaure and Khamerernebty from Egypt
Aerial view of the citadel at Tiryns, Greece
In August, 79 CE, Mount Vesuvius suddenly erupted and covered the neighboring town of Pompeii in ash, preserving many artifacts
Pompeii was used as a vacation town for many of the rich and wealthy of the Roman Empire, so many of the architecture found was elite
Pompeii had three main styles of wall painting
First Style
- paint used to imitate marble panels
Second Style
- an illusion of an imaginary three dimensional world
Third Style
- delicate linear fantasies sketched on predominately monochromatic backgrounds
Nero had a
fourth style
that combined all three
A second style wall painting
This chamber was used to celebrate the mystery religion focused around Dionysos - cults became popular in Rome at this time
Mortal and mythological figure move around the room, interacting with each other
Scene takes place on a painted panel that has the illusion of being 3-D
Red background - Pompeii red
A period of transition, the economy was in decline, Rome kept getting attacked on the frontiers, they didn't have a clear ruler, and Christianity was taking over
A pivotal turning point as the pagan world fell to Christianity - a common them throughout the period
Constantine took over the failing Empire and moved the capitol to Constantinople, making Christianity the official religion of Rome
Was erected to show the power and might of Constantine and to legitimize his rule -
propaganda

Parts were stolen from past landmarks, this displays the might of Constantine over the past Emperors and shows that his rule is backed by the past leaders
Spoila
- when parts are stolen from past monuments and reworked into a new monument
Tons of symbolism
Augustus depicted as a god-like youth addressing his troupes, different than the depictions of the old leaders of the Republic
Head and body recall ancient Greek statues
The relief on his cuirass advertise the return of Roman military standard from the Parthians
The cupid recalls the divine ancestry of Augustus - Caesar's family traced their lineage all the way to Venus, the mother of Cupid
Theme - Depiction of the human body
Connect the Lion Gate in Mycenae to other depictions of lions to display power
exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries all over the world, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture
the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists
Themes of power, gods and humanism, perfecting representations of the human body, inequality of gender (especially in Athens!), and the female nude are prevalent
Euthymides, Three Revelers (Attic red-figure amphora, 510 BCE. Archaic.
Traditional Greek theme of the
athlete
His face is haggard and defeated -- a stark contrast from the Classical Athens
Rome's expansion may have influenced the theme of defeat
Appeals to the emotion and not the intellect - Hellenistic
Bronze original
theme - narrative of battle - compare to
The Burning of Sanjo Palace
from the Kamakura Period in Japan
Landscape with Swallows (Spring fresco), ca. 1650 BCE. Fresco
Theme of
nature in art
(the oldest landscape!!) - connect to any Japanese art, as their culture also celebrated nature
Fibula with orientalizing lions, ca. fifth century BCE. Early Etruscan
Pantheon, 118-125 CE. High Empire, under Hadrian
High Empire
Height of Roman Empire during the second century CE. under Trajan, Hadrian, Hadrian, and the Antonines
Pax Romana - Roman peace
Apollodorus of Damascus, Forum of Trajan, Rome, Italy, dedicated 112 CE.
Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118-125. CE
temple to all gods
30 ft oculus, 143 ft diameter
sphere inscribed in a sphere
masterpiece in architecture
cosmos and continuity in a building
theme -
religion and architecture
- connect to the Great Stupa in India
JESUS IS ON EARTH!!!
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