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Ecology Project

Dania Movahed Wendy Hurwit Mrs. Said AP BIology Periods 0-1
by

Wendy Movahed

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Ecology Project

SUNDARBAN ECOSYSTEM LOCATION DESCRIPTION BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITY Producers Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Higher-Level Consumers Food Web Abiotic Factors Predator- Prey Relationship Symbiotic Relationships Animal Behavior Human Impact Average annual maximum temperature is around 35 C . Average annual rainfall is 1920 mm. Average humidity is about 82%. Sundarban is the largest delta in the world spread over India and Bangladesh and is also the largest Mangrove Forest in the world. Two-thirds of the Sundarbans is in Bangladesh while the other one-third is in West Bengal, India. Indian Sundarban has the river Muriganga on its west side, and on the east it has the Harinbhahga and Raimangal rivers. The climate is mainly tropical with lots of rain. Most of the precipitation in the Sundarban occurs during the monsoon season. The monsoon season (May – October) is hot and humid, while winter (October – February) is mild and dry. The varieties of the forests that exist in Sundarbans include mangrove scrub, littoral forest, saltwater mixed forest, brackish water mixed forest and swamp forest. Besides the forest, there are also areas of brackish water and freshwater marshes, intertidal mudflats, sandflats, sand dunes with vegetation, open grassland on sandy soil and raised areas supporting a variety of terrestrial shrubs and trees. Bengal Tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) Fishing Cat
(Prionailurus viverrinus) Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodilus porosus) Chital
(Axis axis) Wild Boar
(Sus scrofa) Water Monitor
(Varanus salvator) Looking-Glass Mangrove
(Heritiera littoralis) Man to Animal Man-eating occurrences by the Sundarban tiger have been a great problem. This happens with either attack on villagers entering the forest or by tiger straying into the habitation. Man to Forest Poverty in the Sundarbans urges the people to frequently venture into the forest in search of livelihood. Some of them take the risk of cyclone for fishing and others enter the forest to collect honey and fuel wood. The vulnerable mangrove eco-system is under stress due to such interference. The Yellow Mangrove
(ceriops tagal) Mangrove Apple
(Sonneratia Alba) Bengal Tiger As solitary cats, Bengal Tigers are very territorial animals. They hunt at dusk and dawn and regularly mark their territory with their own scent to keep out other tigers from their hunting and breeding grounds. In some national parks where they are protected, tigers have been recorded to be active in daytime as well. Generally tigers prefer to stay in the shade during the day, especially during the hot summer. Males roam over an area of twenty square miles and females hunt in a slightly smaller range of seventeen square miles. Often the territory of a single male overlaps those of several females, with whom he frequently mates. Tigers usually have more than one den in their territory for them to choose as their dwelling for a particular period of time. The Bengal Tiger Relationship to its Ecosystem Bengal Tigers are at the top of their ecosystem. They play an important role in maintaining the delicate balance of India's fauna and flora. They prey upon a variety of animals including wild boar, sambar, barasingha, nilgai, gaur and water buffalo though the spotted dear, also known as chital, forms the bulk of their diet. At times smaller animals including hares, peacocks, langurs and monkeys are also consumed. Gangetic Dolphin
(Platinista gangetica) Snubfin dolphin
(Orcella brevirostris) River Terrapin
(Batagur baska) friend?
Geologically, the Sundarban delta is the largest delta on the globe. The region is covered by quaternary sediments carried and deposited by the rivers Ganges , Matla & Bidyadhari.

Average annual rainfall is 1920 mm, and average humidity is about 82% Sundori (Heritiera fomes) Gewa
(Excoecaria agallocha) Sambar (Rusa unicolor) Langurs(Semnopithecus) Rock Python (Python sebae) Masked Finfoot
(Heliopais personata) Mangrove Whistler
(Pachycephala grisola) Small clawed Otter
( Aonyx cinerea) Common Grey Mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) Red Fiddler Crabs (Ocypodidae Uca) Giant Honey Bee (Apis dorsata) Although the region is south of the Tropic of Cancer, the temperature is steady due to its proximity to the sea. On average, the highest temperature each year is around 35 C . Abiotic Factors Impact on Biotic Factors Being near the equator, the Sundarban ecosystem receives almost direct sunlight. The tall trees and medium-sized trees, however, block off sunlight from the plants closer to the forest floor. The amount of rainfall affects the types of plants can grow in that ecosystem. Similarly, the amount of sunlight available also affects their ability to carry out photosynthesis. The humidity affects that kind of plants that can grow as well. Due to the humidity, the types of plants within the Sundarban Forest are CAM3 plants. The plants would not transpire as much due to the water already present in the air. Also, the Mangrove can only support trees and plants that can grow in its saline coastal sediment. All plants and animals are adapted to survive between a minimum and maximum range of temperature, thus only plants and animals that could survive in a hot climate can live in the Sundarban. For plants, soil type is a major factor in deciding the type and variety of species growing in a particular area as the minerals, water contents, microorganisms etc. all differ in different soils. Every living organism needs certain environmental conditions that are decided by the temperature, rainfall, water availability, minerals, light, humidity of that place. The abiotic factors in combination with the biotic factors provide ideal living conditions for certain species to thrive in. Phytoplankton One example of a symbiotic relationship present in the Sundarban ecosystem includes the interaction between the Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). Both of these organisms are the higher-level consumers of their ecosystem. This symbiotic relationship is called Competition since these two species compete against one another for a shared resource. The effect of their symbiotic relationship sometimes results in conflict over either territory or competition for food sources. While the Bengal Tiger lives most of its days in the interior of the Sundarban forest, they are also known to frequently travel down to the banks of the river and often times into the river itself. This movement pattern often comes into conflict with the Estuarine Crocodile that resides in the river’s bank causing the two species to dispute over their colliding territories. The conflicts become more heightened when the two predators share the same prey and must compete for food resources in their overlapping hunting grounds. These conflicts often ensue over primary consumers, such as the fish within the river to the Chital drinking from the banks. Human Impact Man to River With increasing pressure of population, the many aquatic resources available in the forest of southern Sundarbans are being over exploited by intensive practice of coastal, estuarine and deep-sea fishing by local fishermen and businessmen. This commercial exploitation of specific aquatic species (prawns, carps, prawn seedlings, etc.) is readily offering a high profit to the human population at the cost of ecological loss to the environment of Sundarbans. poop poop ^Alison
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