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PHONETIC AND PHONOLOGICAL VARIATION

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Hale Öztürk

on 26 December 2014

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Transcript of PHONETIC AND PHONOLOGICAL VARIATION

PHONETIC AND PHONOLOGICAL VARIATION
PHONOLOGY
- is the study of sound systems of languages -
Phonological Rules
Phonetics
the study of the actual sounds of a language.
It studies the way speech sounds are produced, transmitted and perceived.
branches of phonetics
1. Articulatory
articulation and production of sounds
2. Acoustic
physical properties of speech sounds

3. Auditory
the way sounds are perceived
IPA
International Phonetic Alphabet
The chart represents British and American phonemes with one symbol.
Phoneme:
smallest meaningful unit of sound.
/b/ , /d/ etc.
Allophone:
a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language.
/p/ , /ph/ pool /
ph
u:l/
spool /s
p
u:l/
CONSANANT PHONEMES
VOWEL PHONEMES
DIPHTHONGS
1. Places of articulation for consonants


where a sound is produced
a) Bilabial
Two Lips
/ P / / b / / m /
b) Labio - dental
Lip and Teeth
/ f / / v /
c) Interdental
between the teeth
/ / / /
d) Alveolar
tongue and alveolar ridge
/ t / / d /
e) Palatal
tounge and palate
ʒ
/ / / /
f) Velar
tongue touches velar
/ k / / g /
g) Glottal
back of the mouth
/ h /
2. Manner of articulation in consonants
a) Stops (Plosives)
/ p / / b /
blocking by lips
b) Fricatives
friction against lips,teeth or tongue
/ f / / /
c) Affricates
blocking and friction
/ / / /
d) Nasal
out-going air through the nose
/ m / / /
e) Liquids
Laterals
/ l / / r /
f) Glides
semivowels
/ j / / w /
/ f / / /
/ l / / r /
3. Voicing
a) Voiced
vibration
/ z /
b) Voiceless
no vibration
/ s /
those sounds that are produced with very limited modification to the air flow as it passes through th vocal tract
1. Duration - Length
2. Rounding of the lips
Rounded Vowels
Unrounded Vowels
3. The part of the tongue involved
Front
Central
Back
4. The position of the tongue
High
Mid
Low
are produced as a result of a gliding movement of tongue from one location to another in the mouth.
high / haı/
It studies how sounds systematically structure and function in languages. (Hyman, 1975 : 2)
Also, it studies the rules and principles that govern the distribution of sounds, the pattern of co-occurence, as well as changes in the quality of vowels and consonants
* Two languages can have the same phonetics but they may have a different phonology.
Two main branches in phonology
1. Segmental Phonology
- tries to establish rules that are capable of predicting the nature and direction of changes -
2. Supra-segmental Phonology
- studies three supresegmental issues :
word - stress
sentential stress
tones
1. Assimilation
- refers to the process of interaction of two sounds, usually belonging to two different words, in which one sound influences another in terms of pronunciation -
Progressive
- the final sound in a morpheme causes a change in the feature of an oncoming morpheme -
dog
/ d
g /
dogs
/ d
gz /
Regressive
- initial sound of a morpheme influences one that precedes it -
Allomorphs
- these are the assimilations that takes place when words added inflections such as plurals and past tense forms -
They don't change the meaning of the words.
stopped
/ st pt /
stabbed
/ st bd /
cats
/ z /
bushes
/ z /
2. Loss of Sounds - Elision
- If sounds disappear under certain circumstances, we are talking about "elision" -
little
/ lıt l /
/ lıdl /
Rock and Roll
3. Sound Addition (Insertion)
- the sound /r/ functions as a linking device when two words, the first ending in a vowel and the next beginning with a vowel, are spontaneously pronounced, especially in British English -
/hı ra: /
four
four eggs
4. Dissimilation
- dissimilation is rules that change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar -
If we do the tongue twister such as
“sixths sheik’s sixth
sheep is sick”,
we have to distribute the sound [s] and [ θ] to
help us to listen and speak clearly.
Epenthesis
sherbe
r
t
(English)
rosa
a
rrosa
(Sardinian)
(prothesis)
esti
esti
n
(Ancient Greek)
(paragoge)
thum
b
thum
a
bout time
'bout time
hunwut
u
mi
hunwutmi
Luiseno
Minimal Pairs

5. Metathesis
- two sound (usually adjacent) switch their place -
ask
in Leti:
/ukar + ppalu/ → [ukrapalu]

/morut + kdieli/ [mortukdjeli]

aks
6. Lenition
- sounds get weaker (less plosive) -
- often occurs next to vowels / less restricted consonants -
Spanish
dados
[da os]
[da _ os]
[daos]
Tuscan
tos
c
ano
[tos
h
a:no]
[k] > [h]
Turkish
çocuk + a
çocuğa
7. Fortition
- weaker sounds become more stronger (more plosive) -
did
y
ou?
[ j ] > [ ]
Turkish
dolap + daki
dolap
t
aki
8. Compensatory Lengthening
- delete consonant, then lengthen vowel to compensate for loss -
Spanish
/ p
od
s /
/ p
o:
s /
9. Vowel Harmony
- vowels pick up nearby features -
Turkish
ev + l
e
r
bina + l
a
r
- is a pair of words that differ in a single phoneme -
- they change the meanings -
football
/ f pb l/
/r knr l/
- means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word -
Linking
here
/hı /
here are
/f /
/f regz/
sherbet
sixths
/sıks
t
s/
sixth
/sıks /

in Latin
"in" means not
i
n
+ possibilis
i
m
possibilis
in Korean
/ khal +
n
al /
/ khal
l
al /
ASSIMILATION
fam
i
ly
/ fæmli /
DELETION
in French
f
or
mage < f
ro
mage
in early old English
/wæ
ps
/
wa
sp
<
METATHESIS
Quebec French
ça arrive [ sa.ariv]
ça l'arrive [sa.la.riv]
EPENTHESIS
INSERTION
- between two vowels, there is an insertion
in Hungarian
a kert
ben
a haz
ban
in
the garden
in
the house
VOWEL HARMONY
Which rule?
French People speaking English
have
/ æv /
Korean people speaking English
chur
ch
/ i /
10. Free Variation
"When the same speaker produces noticeably different pronunciations of the word cat (e.g. by exploding or not exploding the final /t/), the different realisations of the phonemes are said to be in free variation."
(Alan Cruttenden, Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 8th ed. Routledge, 2014)
economics
[i] [E]
What is the difference between the four “t”s?

top [thap] the “t” is aspirated [th]
 stop [stap] the “t” is unaspirated [t]
 metal [mERl] the “t” is a flap [R]
 right [raıt’] the “t” is unreleased [t’]
herb
h b
/jalka-t/ →
ja.laat
Western Finnish
COMPENSATORY LENGTHENING
Welsh
cath
[
k
ath]
[
g
ath]
Latin >
Italian
>
French >
Portuguese
patrem > padre > pere > pai
LENITION
English
Student / ‘st
j
u:dnt /
New / n
j
u: /
FREE VARIATION
REFERENCES
Claire-A. Forel & Genoveva Puskás; PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY, Phonetics in Phonology

John J. Ohala; Phonetics in Phonology, University of California, Berkeley
Frank Kügler, Caroline Fery; Variation and Gradience in Phonetics and Phonology
http://www.ceng.metu.edu.tr/~caglar/563/563-morphology.htm
http://web.stanford.edu/~sumner/Publications/2013_Sumner_CSS.pdf
Mike Davenport & S.J. Hannahs ; Introducing Phonetics and Phonology ,1998
Mehmet Çelik, Linguistics for Students of English
Hale Akacı
https://www.angl.hu-berlin.de/staff/1685901/unterrichtsmaterialien/4.pho.variables.pdf
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