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Genomic Testing and Cancer Research

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Hannah Fitz

on 18 April 2017

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Transcript of Genomic Testing and Cancer Research

Genomic Testing- type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results can confirm or rule out suspected genetic conditions or help determine a person's chance of developing a genetic disorder.
Cancer research- the studying of cancer to develop safe and effective methods to prevent, detect, diagnose, treat, and ultimately cure cancer.
What is the Importance of Genomic Testing and Cancer Research
It has revealed abnormalities in genes that drive the growth/development of cancers. Testing and research have improved our knowledge which helps us to diagnose and treat the disease. New knowledge ,for example figuring out that breast, lung, and stomach cancers have several different subtypes (different types of cancers), have been revealed to doctors and scientists.
What area is it in?
Within the area of Cancer Biology
What is Genomic Testing and Cancer Research
How is this being done?
Genomic Testing- take samples of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (fluid around a fetus) or other tissue is taken and sent to a laboratory where the researchers look for changes in DNA, proteins, or chromosomes. The researchers then write the findings and sent it to a doctor, genetic counselor, or patient.
Cancer Research- Experimental- One of the most common types of experimental studies is the clinical trial. This is a research study that tests a medical intervention performed with people. Clinical trials test:
The effectiveness or safety of a new drug or combination of drugs
A new approach to radiation therapy or surgery
A new treatment or way to prevent cancer.
Ways to lower the risk of cancer coming back
New technologies and tools being used
NASA- uses space technology to find cancer and can identify tissue samples with signs of cancer.
IBM Watson- uses learning info to "interpret cancer patients' clinical information and identify individualized, evidence-based treatment options". Watson helps in interpreting physician notes, research done, and results from a lab.
AL Software- made in Houston Methodist Cancer Center and the software identifies a mammogram 30 times faster than a person and with 99% accuracy while humans have a 50% accuracy rate.
Nanorobotics- travel through the blood stream and attack cancer cells in tumors with medication.
Gene editing- can engineer immune cells to help fight cancer. This helps the body become resistant to tumor cells.
What are the discoveries that researchers have made in this field?
In 1990 Human Genome Project starts with the purpose of mapping out the Human Genome
In 2003 the Human Genome Project is completed and 99% of the Human Genome is decoded
In 2013 it was discovered that identical twins don't have identical genetic makeups.

What does the data show?
The data shows that many diseases are caused by gene mutations and knowing the genomic structure of a person allows for doctors to know if they are more prone to getting certain diseases.
Introduction
Methods
Results
Genomic Testing and Cancer Research
The Pros
The Cons
Group's Opinion
Effective
Genomic Testing and Cancer Research are effective methods. Even though there may be some confusion about mutations or medical discoveries that are unknown of, genetic testing and cancer research have saved many lives and as we keep advancing in technology more diseases can be cured. Money can also be an issue, but that shouldn't matter when it's based on your families' s health. Cancer research has also given doctors the measures to prevent cancer risks for patients.
Bibliography
"What Is Genetic Testing? - Genetics Home Reference." U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health, n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2017.
"What Is Cancer Research?" American Association for Cancer Research Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2017.
"Cancer Genomics." National Cancer Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2017.
"Cancer Research." N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2017.

What are the implications of these results or findings?
These results show that we can tell if we are prone to diseases by studying our genome and that can help us be aware and prevent ourselves from receiving these diseases if possible.
What are the benefits of doing this type of research?
Benefits of doing this research is that it helps people know if they are prone to any diseases so they are aware and can try to prevent themselves from getting those diseases. Also this shows them what kind of genes have been passed from their parents that could affect them and the genes that they might be passing on that could affect the next generation.
Why should the public support this research?
This research will bring many advancements in the medical field since many people will want the test done to know their genomic makeup. It will help societies as a whole because many sicknesses will be prevented and specific medicines will be created for specific sicknesses due to specific genomes.
Single/limited Gene Panel Testing


•This method does not test for all possible cancer genes, so it is less comprehensive.


•If a patient chooses to test for additional genes following testing for a single gene, it can be time consuming and more expensive than multigene panel testing.


Multigene Panel Testing
•Multigene panel testing may find mutations that we know little, or nothing, about. This includes the possibility of finding a mutation in a gene where the cancer risks and/or management strategies are not known. There is also the possibility of finding a mutation where we do not know if it is associated with any increased risk. This means that the testing may not be helpful in making treatment decisions.


•Testing may identify a mutation in a rare high-risk gene, even when a patient has no family history of that hereditary cancer syndrome. In cases like this, the standard management guidelines for this syndrome may be more aggressive than is appropriate for a specific patient.




Challenges With Genetic Testing
Although genetic testing for cancer risk has been proven in certain cases to help people live longer and even save lives, it is not perfect for all families and all types of cancer. share on twitter Currently, our technical capabilities, which have allowed us to offer multigene panel testing, provide us with some unclear results that surpass our medical knowledge. Researchers are working hard to fill in the gaps in our knowledge, but we still have a lot to learn about genetics and cancer.
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