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Richard Schulz

on 26 April 2010

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Transcript of Uganda

Uganda History People Resources Foreign Relations Governmental Structure Domestic Poltics Uganda's modern history is best put into context by it's leadership eras.

Colonial Uganda

Post Colonial Uganda

The Rule of Milton Obote

The Tyranny of Idi Amin

The Yoweri Museveni Years
Colonial Uganda Post-Colonial Uganda Yoweri Museveni Milton Obote Idi Amin Ethnic Groups: Baganda 16.9%,
Banyakole 9.5%,
Basoga 8.4%,
Bakiga 6.9%,
Iteso 6.4%,
Langi 6.1%,
Acholi 4.7%,
Bagisu 4.6%,
Lugbara 4.2%,
Bunyoro 2.7%,
other 29.6% (2002 census) Religious Affiliations Roman Catholic 41.9%,
Protestant 42%,
Muslim 12.1%,
other 3.1%,
none 0.9% (2002 census) Population: 32,369,558 Languages English, Ganda or Luganda, other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic Population Statistics Mortality Rate: Birthrate: Median Age: Fertility Rate: Life Expectancy: 52.72 (204/224 in the world) 47.84/1,000 (2nd on Earth) 15 years 6.77 children per woman 12.9/1000 Net Migration Rate: -8.83 migrants/1000 (173/180) INFECTIOUS DISEASE Problems In Uganda the risk of infectious disease is "very high." The following
statistics provide current estimations of these problems. A West Nile Ugandan

Name first brought into controversy after murdering three Turkanians in Kenya during British operations there once promoted to a commisioned position. Walter Coutts dropped charges amidst the politics of the impending Ugandan independence.

Obote simply reprimanded, then promoted him. Carried out the sacking of the Kabaka's palace.

Because of Obote's high aspirations to unify such a diverse state Amin was able to rally support in unsupporting regions into factions of dissent.

Overthrew Obote in January of '71.

Celebrated at first and insisted military rule was temporary.

Paranoid of a countercoup, he began to kill as many Langi and Acholi troops as he could and began only installing administrators with direct allegiances to himself. He eventually turned on almost every group/administrator he had once endorsed.

Spent frivolously and blamed the budget crisis in Uganda on administrators failing to administrate.

Was known for being internationally illogical. Offered safe-harbor for terrorists.

The "final straw" came when Amin decided to invade Northern Tanzania and were pushed back by some 45,000 troops. He fled to Saudi Arabia where he died in 2003.

He was responsible for the mass killings of 250,000 people
Appointed Prime Minister amidst Ugandan independence in 1960.

Early on was intent on appeasing all of the ethnic groups in Uganda most especially the Acholi and Langi groups in the north and the Bantu groups in the North.

Supported the head of state appointment of Kabakan, Baganda King Edward Mutesa in '63.

He soon took an "about-face" position. He believed the ethnic and tribal groups threatend the stability of the state.

Used this argument as means to seize power from the parliament, dissmiss the Kabaka king, and discard the national consitution.

Used troops to overthrow parliamentary opposition and shell the Kabaka's palace.

Ruled autocratically and governed through fear of his secret police, the General Service Department killing any opposition to his rule.

Was thrown out of power by Amin in 1971 during a trip to a Commonwealth conference.

When Amin was overthrown Obote was reinstalled as President following more-than-likely rigged elections.

Overthrown in 1985. Was responsible for over 300,000 dead

Divided groups into races and trtibes.

Drew colonial boundaries based on ease of trade over waterways Specialized in agricultural returns due to richness of soil and regular rainfall.
Orginally commissioned by East Africa Trading Company in 1888 Eventually Britain commissioned as a protectorate in 1894 was structured as a coalition governement

showed the highest levels of economic growth of any African nation

continued to export heavy volumes of coffee, cotton, and tea.

experienced ethnic unrest along geo-political regions in the north and south. In the years immediately following British occupation, Uganda: Came to power in 1986 following the National Resistance Army's overthrow of Obote's 1985 successor Tito Okello.

He restores the ceremonious poisition of kings, Buganda among others. But maintains near absolute power.

"Restores" political parties and is re-elected in Uganda's first direct presidential elections in '96.

Is re-elected twice more in 2001 and 2006.

In 2010, due to an amendment ratified in 2005, Museveni is accused of preparing his son Muhoozi Kainerugaba for inheriting the office of president.

Has faced sharp criticism regarding crimes humanity in the Karamoja region. His regimes transparency and corruption has been questioned because of educational system

Those living with HIV/AIDS amount to 5.4% (2007 est.) which measures to the 14th worst in the world

This percentage equates tojust under one million HIV/AIDS cases in Uganda (940,000).

The 2007 estimate for HIV/AIDS deaths in Uganda is 77,000 amassing to 9th worst in the world.

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

animal contact disease: rabies (2009) Uganda's natural resources include "fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil."

Despite more than a century of somewhat consistent good exportation, the country's natural resources have never properly been surveyed.

Coffee is the most stable flow of a cash crop and accounts for nearly 80% of Uganda's economy.

Forestry and fishing from Lake Victoria also contribute the evironmental- based local economies of Uganda.

While the urban poulation is highly covered by water (87%) the rural population is poorly covered (56%, 60% overall) , sanitation is a huge problem with water coverage in both areas (43%). Natural Resources Governmental Structure Since indepedence was won from
the British, Uganda's governement has always been cause for conflict and concern. Three specific periods standout in contextualizing Uganda's domestic politics:

The Coalition Government of the Post-Colonial Era

Autocratic Rule

The Republic of Uganda

The Coalition Government When the British departed Uganda in 1962 the government was formed to resemble a hyribd governement structure.

This structure resembled both British parliamentary monarchy and a georpolitical hierarchy of tribes and ethnic groupings.

Obote supported the movement to oppoint politically powerful kings to the Kabaka, among the Buganda people.

The end of the coalition government came when Obote seized control of both the monarachical branch and the parliamentary branch as well. Autocratic Rule The names Obote and Amin came to symbolize the structure of Uganda's government for the next two decades. The Republic of Uganda In 1995, under Museveni, the Republic of Uganda emerged with a new constitution.
The new constitution reinstalled the ceremonious kings, including the Kabaka but did not give any power to the position.
Also, the multiparty system was reintroduced.
The current structure consists of the unicameral National Assembly, the Court of Appeals, the High Court, and the Executive Branch
The legislative districts total to 80
The major political parties and their leaders are: Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]

Domestic Politics Despite signs of stabilization in recent years, Museveni's Uganda has been perhaps not as bloody as during the times of Obote and Amin, but the nation has seen its fair share of controversy thanks mainly to the civil war in the north and the Lord's Resistance movement. Also child soldiers and displaced citizens are two of the major problems Uganda is facing. The Lord's
Resistance Army (LRA)

Notoriously brutal, the LRA has imployed the use of heavy violence, mass-rape, child soldiers, and intentional mass starvation through resource pilaging and preying on displaced citizens.
The use of child soldiers and child displacment on massive scales has piqued awareness globally of the LRA's atrocities.
On numerous occaisions the LRA has attempted to overthrow Museveni's Ugandan government Led by Joseph Kony The LRA is a rebel force present in the Sudan, Congo, and Ugandan nations. Supposedly on a mission from God, these rebels claim their mission is to seek an end to any muslim influence and inact law based on the Ten Commandments. Kony, along with four of his LRA comrads, was placed on the ICC's wanted list in 2005 LRA Continued... In July and August 2006 the LRA and the Ugandan governemnt held peacetalks.
The talks eventually led to a truce because of limited LRA supplies
In the ensuing months the truce fell through and fighting resumed
Eventually more peace talks are held and everything goes as planned until Kony fails to attend the new truce signing and Uganda, the DRC, and Sudan launch an offensive against the LRA AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO International Organizations Relations with Surrounding African Nations Relations with the rest of the World Anti-Homosexuality Bill United Nations Pressure continues to mount from UN members for Uganda to put an end to the atrocities of the civil wars and its contributing conflicts. While the relationships between Uganda and the worlds leaders have improved in recent years, concerns are also continuing to development over sustained economic growth and the longevity of Museveni's leadership. In 2009, members of Museveni's own party proposed the ratification of an anti-homosexuality law. What would typically be addressed as a domestic politics issue, Uganda's leadership party recieved huge amounts of international "flak" and attention due in-large to a death sentence clause. The world's human rights communities mobilized and caused one of the more impressive extraterritorial policy influences in history by using petitions and fundraisers to expose and illuminate this controversial issue. Since, Museveni and the party's leaders have distanced themselves from the bill and most believe the prospect of a death penalty in out-lawing homosexuality is dead. ICC Uganda is a participating member of the international court and claims to accept ICC rulings. However, the nation has been accused of violating ICC and UN policies by invading the DRC and failing to arrest and turnover Joseph Kony despite rumors of his presence in some peacetime talks. Uganda is a member of the following International Organizations: Uganda's Oil Foreign Aide and A Growing Global Economy Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages.

The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings.

Uganda has continued to invest in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs.

Despite fluccuating coffee prices the economy continues to stabily grow

In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million.Total debt relief has added up to about $2 billion.

Due solid growth provisions/consultation, has managed to sustain success during the global ecnomic downturn In January 2009, British oil exploring and surveying company Heritage Oil declares Uganda a huge oil find.

February 2010 marks the end of a year-long bidding war between UK firm Tullow Oil and Italian company Eni SpA over the rights to develop and further explore the possibility of mass amounts of oil under the Ugandan soil.

According to recent Walls Street Journal reports, Uganda is willing and open to foreign commercial development of oil sales.

This month Tullow confirms intial Heritage claims of Oil in Uganda. Rwanda The Democratic Republic of the Congo Sudan Somalia As Uganda is an active member of the African Union, the state took part in troops deployment to Somalia in 2007 to help the region's stability. But, in 2009 opposition erupted from select groups due to an incident where several civilians were targeted, injured, and killed by "peacekeeping" troops. In 2001 the Uganda/Rwanda relationship fell into conflict as Uganda claimed its former ally an enemy because of skirmishing between the two fronts while assisting in the DRC civil war. While Uganda may have on the side of the Laurent-Desire Kabila and the newly formed DRC in '96's First Congo War, the DRC and Uganda have not seen eye-to-eye. Uganda supported the rebels seeking to overthrow Kabila in the second conflict. While the unclear outcome of the second Congo War allowed the Kivu conflict to escalate, Uganda's involvment in peacetalks with the DRC have changed topics to a border dispute. Also, the two nations are home to a large portion of the LRA-imposed displaced citizens. Uganda and Sudan have been impacted by the LRA. The LRA's range extends into Sudan's southern regions and the area of displaced persons in both regions only continues to grow. As displaced persons leave Uganda, they walk into Sudanese problems of seriously diminishing resources being augmented by LRA action. Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]; Young Parliamentary Association [Henry BANYENZAKI]; Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO; National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]; The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW Pressure Groups Population Distribution: 84% Rural Per-Capita Income: 1,300 USD (126th in the World
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