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Transcript of Virginia Henderson
Nursing Need Theory
• The Nursing Need Theory was developed by Virginia Henderson and was derived from her practice and education. Henderson's goal was not to develop a theory of nursing, but rather to define the unique focus of nursing practice. The theory emphasizes the importance of increasing the patient's independence so that progress after hospitalization would not be delayed. Her emphasis on basic human needs as the central focus of nursing practice has led to further theory development regarding the needs of the patient and how nursing can assist in meeting those needs.
14 Component of Basic Nursing
1. Breath normally.
2. Eat and drink adequately.
3. Eliminate body wastes.
4. Move and maintain desirable postures.
5. Sleep and rest.
6. Select suitable clothes dress and undress.
7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environment.
8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument.
9. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
Henderson described the nurse’s role as:
(doing for the person)
(helping the person)
(working with the person)
With the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible.
Application in Nursing Education
An influential nurse, researcher, theorist and author
Known as "The First Lady of Nursing” and has been called, "Arguably the most famous nurse of the 20th century" and "The quintessential nurse of the 20th century"
"The 20th Century Florence Nightingale."
Her interest in nursing evolved during WWI from her desire to help the sick and wounded military personnel.
Her contributions include defining nursing, delineating autonomous nursing functions, stressing goals of interdependence for the patient and creating self-help concepts.
Developed the Nursing Need Theory
The basic nursing curriculum which includes social and bio-physical sciences has three natural stages of learning.
1. First stage is devoted in assisting patient to meet his activities of daily living.
II. Second stage focuses on symptomatic nursing or common physical and emotional dysfunctions
III. Third stage integrates care to the different developmental stages and whole life span of an individual.
Student nurses should develop clinical judgments, direct individualized patient care, a habit of inquiry, and be lifelong students.
Henderson developed three phases of curriculum that students should progress through their learning.
I. Fundamental needs of the patient, the planning of the nursing care, and the unique function of the nurse helping the patient perform his activities of daily living.
II. Helping patients meet their needs during marked body disturbances or pathological states that demand modifications in the nurse’s plan of care.
III. Patient and family-centered, wherein students become involved in the complete study of the patient and its needs.
Application in Research
Henderson’s theory on the definition of nursing and each of the 14 fundamental components for basic nursing care arose research questions, where nurse’s function to assume responsibility for identifying problems, for continually validating our functions for improving the methods we use and for reassuring the effectiveness of nursing care as well.
She concluded that, “No profession, occupation or industry in this age can evaluate adequately or improve its practice without research”.
Her strong advocacy for nursing brings forth a challenge to all of us to identify new needs beyond the 14 she evaluated.
She believed that research in nursing is essential in nursing practice in the age of technological advancements
Application in Actual Setting
Henderson’s definition of nursing and the 14 components of basic nursing care are useful in guiding assessment and care of patients preparing for surgical operations/in actual situations.
Through these components the nurse can able to help the patients in their concerns and was able to do her task properly.
The concept of nursing formulated by Henderson in her definition of nursing and the 14 components of basic nursing is uncomplicated and self-explanatory. Therefore, it can be used without difficulty as a guide for nursing practice by most nurses.
Henderson states that individuals have basic needs that are component of health and require assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful death.
She believes that society wants and expects the nurse’s service of acting for individuals who are unable to function independently.
According to her, an individual achieves wholeness by maintaining physiological and emotional balance.
Application in Nursing Practice
Nurses function to assist patients in activities of daily living, especially those who are incapable of doing so because of a debilitating condition.
The 14 Fundamental Needs
It is very evident in the clinical settings how the nurse carries the tasked to assist the client in meeting his or her needs -
may it be physical, social, emotional or spiritual.
In order to promote independence on the patient, the nurse must be competent. Henderson advocated for academic preparation of a nurse in a higher institution of learning which gives her the “broadest possible understanding of humanity and the world which they live” (Henderson, 1977).
Courses into (1) the humanities, (2) the biological and physical sciences, (3) the social sciences, and (4) the medical and nursing arts and sciences. The growing variation among programs offered by schools of nursing results to different roles of a nurse assumed in health care setting. This is the reason why Henderson (1977) proposed a basic nursing program.
The 14 fundamental needs, as proposed by the theorist, lead a great emphasis on the assistive and supportive role of the nurse in managing patient care.
Interdisciplinary education and fostering a humanistic concept of health care.
Some of the activities listed in Henderson’s concepts can only be applied to fully functional individuals indicating that there would always be patients who always require aided care.
Nurses’ care for patients until patients can care for themselves once again.
Patients desire to return to health.
Nurses are willing to serve and that “Nurses will devote themselves to the patient day and night.”
Nurses should be educated at the university level in both arts and sciences.
Henderson also believes that mind and body are inseparable. It is implied that the mind and body are interrelated.
10. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
11. Worship according to one’s faith.
12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.
13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
14. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.