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Organizational Pattern in Non Fiction

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Danielle B

on 12 November 2012

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Transcript of Organizational Pattern in Non Fiction

Think: How is the writing organized
to help me understand the text? Understanding Organizational Patterns in Nonfiction Most paragraphs that we write in school can be called main idea, description, or statement and support paragraphs Are there any other organizational patterns? The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled! Can you find the clue words? The night’s snowstorm had many effects. People were out shoveling snow from their sidewalks. The power lines were draped with ice. Snow plows drove down every street. Children were the happiest of all. The unexpected snow caused school to be cancelled! Can you find the clue words? You will often see sequence in directions:
Have you ever made macaroni and cheese? It’s simple! First, boil some water and make some macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce. After the cheese sauce is ready, mix it with the macaroni. Bake the entire thing in the oven. Finally, it’s time to eat! Sequence Understanding Organizational Patterns Share your ideas with a partner
Be sure to explain how you can find the organizational patterns in a paragraph What have you learned about organizational patterns?
Main idea

Notice the main idea
The rest of the sentences explain the main idea By Monday night, the town of Chicago was burning. People described it as terrible, but amazing. The flames were brighter than anything people had ever seen. The harsh winds swept the fire across the city with terrible speed. For many who watched, it was a sight to remember for the rest of their lives. One more paragraph!
Main idea By Monday night, the town of Chicago was burning. People described it as terrible, but amazing. The flames were brighter than anything people had ever seen. The harsh winds swept the fire across the city with terrible speed. For many who watched, it was a sight to remember for the rest of their lives. One more paragraph! Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution
Main idea By Monday night, the town of Chicago was burning. People described it as terrible, but amazing. The flames were brighter than anything people had ever seen. The harsh winds swept the fire across the city with terrible speed. For many who watched, it was a sight to remember for the rest of their lives. One more paragraph! Chicago changed in many ways after the fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were less than five stories high. The buildings that were constructed after the fire, however, were some of the first skyscrapers in the country. Before the fire, most of the houses were made of wood. After the fire, people chose to build their houses out of stone or brick. There were changes in where people lived, as well. The poor people in the city lived close to the center of the city before the fire. After the fire, they moved into neighborhoods that were farther away from the downtown area. Compare and contrast

Notice how this paragraph is comparing Chicago BEFORE the fire to Chicago AFTER the fire Can you find the organizational pattern? Chicago changed in many ways after the fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were less than five stories high. The buildings that were constructed after the fire, however, were some of the first skyscrapers in the country. Before the fire, most of the houses were made of wood. After the fire, people chose to build their houses out of stone or brick. There were changes in where people lived, as well. The poor people in the city lived close to the center of the city before the fire. After the fire, they moved into neighborhoods that were farther away from the downtown area. Compare and contrast

Notice how this paragraph is comparing Chicago BEFORE the fire to Chicago AFTER the fire Can you find the organizational pattern? Chicago changed in many ways after the fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were less than five stories high. The buildings that were constructed after the fire, however, were some of the first skyscrapers in the country. Before the fire, most of the houses were made of wood. After the fire, people chose to build their houses out of stone or brick. There were changes in where people lived, as well. The poor people in the city lived close to the center of the city before the fire. After the fire, they moved into neighborhoods that were farther away from the downtown area. Compare and contrast Can you find the text structure? Chicago changed in many ways after the fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were less than five stories high. The buildings that were constructed after the fire, however, were some of the first skyscrapers in the country. Before the fire, most of the houses were made of wood. After the fire, people chose to build their houses out of stone or brick. There were changes in where people lived, as well. The poor people in the city lived close to the center of the city before the fire. After the fire, they moved into neighborhoods that were farther away from the downtown area. Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution
Main idea Can you find the organizational pattern? After the fire, thousands of people were left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing except the clothes on their backs. Providing all of these people with food, clean water, and shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This group started giving out the food donations that were pouring in from other cities. The society built places for people to live, gathered the tools that people needed to rebuild their houses, and even vaccinated 64,000 people against smallpox.
Problem and solution

Here is the solution What organizational pattern is used here? After the fire, thousands of people were left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing except the clothes on their backs. Providing all of these people with food, clean water, and shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This group started giving out the food donations that were pouring in from other cities. The society built places for people to live, gathered the tools that people needed to rebuild their houses, and even vaccinated 64,000 people against smallpox.
Problem and solution

Here is the problem What organizational pattern is used here? After the fire, thousands of people were left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing except the clothes on their backs. Providing all of these people with food, clean water, and shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This group started giving out the food donations that were pouring in from other cities. The society built places for people to live, gathered the tools that people needed to rebuild their houses, and even vaccinated 64,000 people against smallpox. Chronological order

Cause and effect
Problem and solution What organizational pattern is used here? After the fire, thousands of people were left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing except the clothes on their backs. Providing all of these people with food, clean water, and shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This group started giving out the food donations that were pouring in from other cities. The society built places for people to live, gathered the tools that people needed to rebuild their houses, and even vaccinated 64,000 people against smallpox. Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution
Main idea What organizational pattern is here? Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company noticed the fire by accident as it was returning from another fire. As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames directed other fire companies to a location that was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire that could have been controlled rapidly spread across the city.

Cause and effect
Notice how the causes (in blue) lead to the effect (in yellow) Try another! Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company noticed the fire by accident as it was returning from another fire. As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames directed other fire companies to a location that was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire that could have been controlled rapidly spread across the city.

Cause and effect Try another! Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company noticed the fire by accident as it was returning from another fire. As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames directed other fire companies to a location that was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire that could have been controlled rapidly spread across the city. Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution
Main idea Try another! Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the flames coming from the O’Leary barn at around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm box made it impossible for the people in the area to call for the fire department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours, there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind coming from the lake only made the fire bigger. It would be another day before the fire would be completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings had been burned. Understanding that this text is written in chronological order can help you to understand how the Great Fire started What’s the organizational pattern? Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the flames coming from the O’Leary barn at around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm box made it impossible for the people in the area to call for the fire department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours, there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind coming from the lake only made the fire bigger. It would be another day before the fire would be completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings had been burned. Chronological order

Notice how the paragraph shows how events happen in time order What’s the organizational pattern? Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the flames coming from the O’Leary barn at around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm box made it impossible for the people in the area to call for the fire department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours, there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind coming from the lake only made the fire bigger. It would be another day before the fire would be completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings had been burned. Chronological order What’s the organizational pattern? Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the flames coming from the O’Leary barn at around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm box made it impossible for the people in the area to call for the fire department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours, there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind coming from the lake only made the fire bigger. It would be another day before the fire would be completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings had been burned. Chronological order
Compare and contrast

Problem and solution What’s the organizational pattern? Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the flames coming from the O’Leary barn at around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm box made it impossible for the people in the area to call for the fire department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours, there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind coming from the lake only made the fire bigger. It would be another day before the fire would be completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings had been burned. Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution
Main idea What’s the organizational pattern? On the next few slides, you will read some paragraphs about the Great Chicago Fire
Your task is to decide on the organizational pattern for each one
Understanding the organizational pattern will help you to understand each paragraph Now it’s your turn! Clue words in these paragraphs may include:

One reason, another reason, and for example Main idea paragraphs The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance. Main idea paragraphs The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain future. Issues such as pesticides, too many nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the Bay’s water quality and animal life. However, scientists are hopeful that the future may be brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay watershed works together, solutions may be found. A more difficult problem and solution paragraph Synonyms for problem include difficulty, struggle, uncertainty, worry, threat, and trouble
Synonyms for solution include possibility, hope, bright spot, answer, and future Of course, problem and solution is not always so simple Can you find the problem and the solution in this paragraph? Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. An example of problem and solution Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. An example of problem and solution Sometimes, an author will want to explain a problem, and then show one or more solutions
This kind of organizational pattern is called (4) problem and solution Another kind of organizational pattern Which organizational pattern tells about how things are similar and different?
Which organizational pattern explains how things happen in time order? Review When authors write paragraphs to show causes and effects, they use words like cause, effect, as a result, consequently, and so Cause and effect clue words What if an author doesn’t want to show how something happened in order?
The author would need to use another text structure! Another organizational pattern What is an organizational pattern?
What does chronological order mean?
What are some clue words that show chronological order? Think about it! This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can you find the clue words that show this order? Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history. Which paragraph is in chronological order? Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history. Pennsylvania has many historic sites. You can visit Revolutionary war sites, like Valley Forge. You can also visit important locations from the Civil War, like Gettysburg. Finally, you can also see the site of the first oil well in Titusville. Pennsylvania has many neat places to visit! Which paragraph is in chronological order? You will often see chronological order in directions:
Have you ever made macaroni and cheese? It’s simple! First, boil some water and make some macaroni. Then, make your cheese sauce. After the cheese sauce is ready, mix it with the macaroni. Bake the entire thing in the oven. Finally, it’s time to eat! Chronological order You will know that you are reading a text in chronological order because you will see words like first, next, later, then, and finally Chronological order Authors use chronological order to explain how events happen in order
Chronological order uses a time line.
Some clues are: dates and time periods. 1. Chronological order Writers use different patterns to build their ideas
Each organizational pattern communicates ideas in a different way What is an organizational pattern? Builders can use different kinds of patterns to build different things
A skyscraper, for example, is a different kind layout or pattern than a house What is an organizational pattern? Organization is coordinating separate parts into a unit or structure
“Organizational Pattern” refers to how a piece of text is built or put together What is an organizational pattern?
Main idea

Notice the main idea By Monday night, the town of Chicago was burning. People described it as terrible, but amazing. The flames were brighter than anything people had ever seen. The harsh winds swept the fire across the city with terrible speed. For many who watched, it was a sight to remember for the rest of their lives. One more paragraph! Compare and contrast
Cause and effect

Main idea By Monday night, the town of Chicago was burning. People described it as terrible, but amazing. The flames were brighter than anything people had ever seen. The harsh winds swept the fire across the city with terrible speed. For many who watched, it was a sight to remember for the rest of their lives. One more paragraph! Chicago changed in many ways after the fire. Before the fire, most of the buildings were less than five stories high. The buildings that were constructed after the fire, however, were some of the first skyscrapers in the country. Before the fire, most of the houses were made of wood. After the fire, people chose to build their houses out of stone or brick. There were changes in where people lived, as well. The poor people in the city lived close to the center of the city before the fire. After the fire, they moved into neighborhoods that were farther away from the downtown area. Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Main idea Can you find the text structure? After the fire, thousands of people were left homeless. Many escaped the fire with nothing except the clothes on their backs. Providing all of these people with food, clean water, and shelter was a huge task. Luckily, the city quickly formed a Relief and Aid Society. This group started giving out the food donations that were pouring in from other cities. The society built places for people to live, gathered the tools that people needed to rebuild their houses, and even vaccinated 64,000 people against smallpox.
Problem and solution What organizational pattern is used here? Why was the Great Chicago Fire so disastrous? After all, Chicago had fire departments and fire alarms. One reason for the terrible fire is that the alarm malfunctioned. The local fire company noticed the fire by accident as it was returning from another fire. As another problem, a watchman who saw the flames directed other fire companies to a location that was nearly a mile away from the fire. Because of these two problems, a fire that could have been controlled rapidly spread across the city.
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution Try another! Daniel Sullivan was the first to notice the flames coming from the O’Leary barn at around 8:30 pm on October 8. A problem with the alarm box made it impossible for the people in the area to call for the fire department. By 9:30 pm, the entire block was blazing. In another 3 hours, there were fires all over Chicago. The heavy wind coming from the lake only made the fire bigger. It would be another day before the fire would be completely out. By that time, 17,500 buildings had been burned. Chronological order What’s the organizational pattern? All of the other sentences explain why the main idea is true Main idea The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance. Main idea paragraphs In this kind of paragraph, the author offers a main idea statement, and then supports that statement with several details Main idea paragraphs Can you figure out the organizational pattern that these clue words point to? problem, solution, threat, difficulty, hope, answer, possibility Match the clue words! Can you figure out the organizational pattern that these clue words point to? as a result, consequently, therefore, so, cause, effect Match the clue words! Chronological order
Compare and contrast
Cause and effect
Problem and solution Organizational patterns we’ve learned so far Problem


Solution The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain future. Issues such as pesticides, too many nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the Bay’s water quality and animal life. However, scientists are hopeful that the future may be brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay watershed works together, solutions may be found. A more difficult problem and solution paragraph What is the problem?
What is the solution? The Chesapeake Bay faces an uncertain future. Issues such as pesticides, too many nutrients, and habitat loss all threaten the Bay’s water quality and animal life. However, scientists are hopeful that the future may be brighter. If everyone in the Chesapeake Bay watershed works together, solutions may be found. A more difficult problem and solution paragraph Often, authors will signal problem and solution structure with clue words like problem and solution, just like in the last paragraph
Sometimes, authors will use related words Of course, problem and solution is not always so simple Here is the problem Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. An example of problem and solution Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! More with cause and effect Sometimes, a writer will want to explain how one event leads to another
This kind of text structure is called (3) cause and effect Another organizational pattern Can you explain the difference between chronological order and compare and contrast?
How can clue words help you as a reader? Review To organize details from a paragraph in compare and contrast, use a Venn diagram or an alike/different chart Compare and contrast graphic organizer The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds. Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year. Can you find the clue words? When authors use the organizational pattern of compare and contrast, they often use special clue words to show this pattern.

Can you find the clue words in the paragraph? Compare and contrast clue words The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds. Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year. Compare/Contrast This is the paragraph in chronological order. Can you find the clue words that show this order? Through the ages, Pennsylvania has seen many interesting events. The state was founded in 1681 by William Penn. Later, Pennsylvania was the site of important Revolutionary War battles. After that, Pennsylvania was home to new factories during the Industrial Revolution. Today, Pennsylvania continues to make history. Which paragraph is in chronological order? Main idea The pond was a beautiful place to visit. The falling leaves, all different colors, decorated the surface of the water. At the edges of the pond, small wildflowers grew. The golden forest glowed faintly in the distance. Main idea paragraphs Can you figure out the organizational pattern that these clue words point to? however, on the other hand, similarity, like, unlike Match the clue words! Here is the solution Here is the problem Park School had a terrible problem. Every day at recess, students would argue over the slides. Teachers had to spend time every day taking care of the arguments. Finally, one teacher came up with a great solution. They bought another set of slides that everyone could enjoy. An example of problem and solution This is the effect Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! More with cause and effect This is the cause Baby painted turtles spend all winter in their nests. They have special chemicals in their blood that can keep their blood from freezing. As a result, baby painted turtles can survive freezing temperatures! More with cause and effect The cardinal and the cedar waxwing are two common birds. Both have crests on their heads. Both are common at birdfeeders. But the birds have some differences. The male cardinal is a bright red, while the waxwing is brown. The cedar waxwing often migrates from place to place. On the other hand, the cardinal stays in one place year after year. Here they are! Suppose an author wanted to explain how these two birds are similar and different
Chronological order wouldn’t work---there is no order of events
The author would need to use (2) compare and contrast Compare and Contrast Alike Different Topic Last organizational pattern we need to know! Sequence Compare- to tell similarities; how things are alike
Contrast- tell differences
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