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ECL410- The Literacy Teacher, the profession and the community and Literacy Teacher- Researchers in New Times
Transcript of ECL410- The Literacy Teacher, the profession and the community and Literacy Teacher- Researchers in New Times
& Daryl Gray Investigation of a
Literacy Issue Teaching English as an Alternative Language (EAL)
+Vocabulary Focus No matter where you teach, research shows you are more than likely to teach students of ESL backgrounds. Why is this issue important? Teaching literacy in a diverse environment
Global Experience Program (GEP)
Thailand and Northern Territory
This was selected because:
- we have experienced teaching in this environment
- we wish we had a deeper understanding of EAL issues therefore, want to give/pass on our personal experiences
Relevance: many graduates may teach in a school where they experience students who are EAL/ESL Overview of Presentation
The literacy outcomes for EAL children are lower than for other community groups, and low literature achievements are associated with poor health and low participation and retention. Commonwealth of Australia Historical Placement Interview Summary:
- Integrated learning
- Link content to a central focus/theme
- Chances of comprehension are maximised
- Scaffolding stories, writting
- Use hand-on activities
-Record student data
- High Expectation-give students challenges to rise to
Recommendations References Issues we have experienced
- Isolation (or lack of)
- Teacher turnover
- Cultural differences
-Lack of worldly experiences (NT)
- Attendance (parents responsibility, students being
strong minded), (private school, privilege)
- Comprehension and vocab (intellectually able)
-Culture not taught and cultural inhibitions (NT)
- Accents (Pigeon English), (American English)
- Lack of immersion (1hr blocks) What are the issues? Definitions TESOL: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
ELL: English Language Learner
ESD: English as a second dialect
ESL: English as a second language
EAL: English as an alternate language
Students are defined as being ESL students if they come from a language background other than English, and require additional support in learning English as a second or additional language. (DEECD 2006)
There are no typical ESL students. They come from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds and have had a wide variety of life experiences - attributes that can significantly enrich the life of the school and help enhance learning for all students. (DEECD 2006) Typical second language learners take approximately two years to become fluent on a social level but can take up to five to ten years to gain academic proficiency.
Hart and Risley (1995, cited in Beachler & Williams, 2012) state that children need to learn 800 new words each year from grades kindergarten through to secondary
Therefore, it is imperative that educators find methodologies to help ELLs increase sight word recognition and increase their potential for academic success.
(Beechler and Williams, 2012)
Research indicates that the more highly developed a student’s first language, the more success that student will have acquiring a second.
The ideal is for supported integration of ESL learners into age-appropriate classes.
ESL students cannot afford to wait until they have fully mastered the language to pursue their development in other spheres. This reduces their learning opportunities and exaggerates the learning problem. There is an invalid assumption that without academic English, other content areas will be a waste of time teaching.
(British Columbia Ministry of Education 1999; Lee 2012) Research
Students develop literate skills when:-
Teachers encourage them to talk about written language,
Teachers model comprehension strategies for them,
Students have opportunities to talk to each other about how they make sense of a text.
(Mikulecky 2009 citing Hoffman and Heath, 1986)
Reading needs to be practiced often and benefits of fluent reading include:-
Awareness of grammar,
Models for writing,
Immersion in the culture of the second or foreign language Recommendations continued Recommendations continued Instructional Materials
Experienced teachers recommend having available in the classroom:
- Dictionaries specifically designed for learners of English (this type of dictionary provides pronunciation keys, simple explanations, and contextualized examples rather than the precise definitions and information about part of speech given in standard dictionaries)
- Bilingual dictionaries
- Picture and visual dictionaries
- Alphabet letters (print and cursive)
- Drawing, painting, and modelling supplies (e.g., plasticine)
- Catalogues, magazines, or other heavily illustrated reading material
- Games (including board games, card games, and computer games that require or focus on language use at an appropriate level)
- Manipulatives (British Columbia Ministry of Education 1999)
- Write key words on the board
- Use visual and other non-verbal cues
- Use concrete objects, charts, maps, pictures, photos, gestures, facial expressions, etc. . (British Columbia Ministry of Education 1999) Practice
Classes should include
- Substantial amounts of extensive reading for pleasure, with
opportunities for talk about their books.
- Focussed interactive lessons on specific reading skills, with opportunities for
explanations of their thinking
- Training and practice in fluency development (skimming, scanning, previewing)
- Vocabulary activities directed at high frequency words (Mikulecky 2009)
Make activities relevant
- Discuss immigration, globalisation, culture, etc. This relates to their world.
- English and History classes can focus on family experiences of the students. (Lee 2012)
Discuss the text before they read, rather than the reverse. Consider:
• Previewing the text (focusing on chapter headings, illustrations, glossaries, etc. so that students have a sense of the organization and content before they begin to read)
• Providing a pre-reading question about the main idea(s) in the text as a focus for reading
• Having students locate key words (e.g., technical terms) in the passage and use contextual clues to explain their meaning
• Having students keep vocabulary notebooks to record subject-related words and explanations along with contextualized usage examples (these can be checked and evaluated two or three times during the year)
• Providing follow up questions that refer students back to the text to find details that support an argument or to draw inferences from their reading.
(British Columbia Ministry of Education 1999) Recommendations continued Recommendations continued Recommendations continued Drama
An excellent method to introduce role playing and acting out activities involving all students in the classroom to enhance language acquisition for ESL students. Stories can be acted out to reinforce comprehension skills, as well as language skills, while the LEP learner absorbs the rhythm and meanings of words in the new language. A fun way to learn without inhibitions present. (Loper n.d.)
When classroom students work in small groups toward social and academic learning goals. The small mixed groups allow an ESL student to feel at ease while learning English. Peers in the group support the new language learners as they discuss the lesson material in English. The group atmosphere provides a non-threatening environment for the LEP student while self-confidence is being strengthened. Spencer Kagan, author of Cooperative Learning, stresses the implementation of cooperative learning groups in every classroom.
Research shows that ‘No matter what culture you or your pupils come from, singing is a great way to introduce, improve and strengthen language skills. This is true for young people and adults, however, young people probably are the most willing to join in the fun and sing along’. (Young Learners Songs n.d.)
Ferlazzo (2012) argues to learn the funds of knowledge that students bring to school. A teacher that knows their students will be more successful.
Positive student-teacher relationships to increased student achievement (Johnson, Johnson, & Roseth, 2006). As Robert Marzano (2007) writes, "If the relationship between the teacher and the students is good, then everything else that occurs in the classroom seems to be enhanced" (p. 150) Interpretating
Provide additional ‘wait time’ for student responses to questions.
When asked a question, ESL students typically translate it into their first language, formulate an answer in their first language, and translate an approximation of the answer into English, before giving their response. (British Columbia Ministry of Education 1999) Idiomatic Translation
A teacher might say ‘Take a stab at it’, to encourage a student; the ESL students would be very confused by their literal interpretation of this. If someone uses an expression like this, rephrase it so that ESL students can attach meaning to it. (British Columbia Ministry of Education 1999) Who is an EAL/ESL student?
. Issues Continued Issues Continued (ACARA 2011) ACARA, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority 2011, My School, Retrieved 8 September 2012, http://www.myschool.edu.au/
Australian Council of TESOL 2000, ‘Why do Immigrants Require Quality ESL Classes’, Retrieved 22 September 2012, http://www.tesol.org.au/Why-do-immigrants-require-quality-ESL-classes
Beechler and Williams, 2012, The Special Issue on Behavioral and Social Science: Computer Assisted Instruction and Elementary ESL Students in Sight Word Recognition, retrieved 20 September 2012, http://www.ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_4_Special_Issue_February_2012/10.pdf)
British Columbia, Ministry of Education: Special Programs Branch, 1999, English as a Second Language Learners: A Guide for Classroom Teachers, retrieved 19 September 2012, http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/esl/policy/classroom.pdf
Burns A 2007, ‘Prospect’ Vol. 22 No. 3, Retrieved 21 September 2012, http://www.ameprc.mq.edu.au/docs/prospect_journal/volume_22_no_3/Adult_ESL_programs_in_Australia.pdf
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development 2006, ‘ESL in Schools’, Retrieved 11 September 2012, http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/programs/esl/eslschools.htm#1 government of newfoundlands
Ferlazzo, F 2012, 'Get Organised Around Assets', Educational Leadership, vol. 69, no. 6.
Grammar Revolution, 2009, ‘Grammar the Easy Way’, Retrieved 12 September 2012, http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/idiomatic-expressions.html
Johnson, D, Johnson, R, & Roseth, C 2006. 'Do peer relationships affect achievement? The Cooperative Link', issue 21 Vol.1, Retrieved 27 September 2012 www.co-operation.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Volume-211.pdf Web Tools
Use Visuals and Technology to engage students
Common words matching http://www.learningchocolate.com/
Lauri’s Listeninng http://fog.ccsf.cc.ca.us/~lfried/activity/listening.html
Road to Grammar
ICT Sunshine online http://www.sunshineonline.com.au/level1.php Recommendations continued Every language has idioms, and they can be difficult to learn if you are not a native speaker of that language.
The best thing to do is to have conversations with native speakers and ask them about phrases that you don't understand. Since idioms are influenced by the culture, learning the idioms of a language can be very interesting and
enlightening (Grammar Revolution 2009) Keep your chin up. A piece of cake. What do you recommend for beginning teachers? Focus Focus of topic
Recommendations 1800s: The Classical Method- A very boring-sounding method of language
1880s: Maximilian Berlitz developed The Direct Method, based on the premise that a second language should be learned more like the first language
Before the 1950s: language instruction in general was a rather tedious and soporific enterprise that relied heavily on drills, repetition, translation and probably knuckle rapping.
1950s: The Audiolingual Method- Dependance on mimicry and memorisation, repetitive drills, auido tapes and visuals
1970s: The Designer Method-Language classes were all about comfort. Teaching methods used include:
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Community Language Learning
The Silent Way
The Natural Approach
Nowadays: Teachers today employ knowledge of a learner to suit their teaching style and their students’ needs, using:
Real life experiences
Funds of knowledge ESL teaching methods have come a long way in the past 60 years World War II was the turning point where the government realised how vital oral and aural abilities were in foreign language education, and it was out of this realization that many of the ESL teaching methods used today were born. Australia is unique in providing newly arrived immigrants and refugees with settlement and second-language programs that have been nationally funded for over 50 years. (Burns 2007) (Thanasoulas 2002)
(YourDictionary 2012) Interview with Supervising Teacher (Andrew, NT) Multiple Representations
It is important to allow the ESL student to listen to stories. These enhance the continuing process of hearing the new language. Students may follow along with the words written in a book while listening to a tape of the story. The tape recording allows the second language learner to hear the sounds and rhythms of English. An audio tape may also be placed in a learning center where students have the opportunity to record a "retell" of a story they have heard read aloud to them. Then the recordings could be utilized by the students to participate in some language self-assessment activities. Teachers can use student made tapes as records of reading and language progress. (Loper n.d.; Ferlazzo 2012)
Lee (2012) and Ferlazzo (2012) argue for the use of visuals.
This includes giving students opportunities to make visual representations of their ideas or acting out a critical scene in a book before beginning writing.
Provide relevant texts to older children. Don’t use ABC kindergarten stories just because their vocabulary is poor.
Games can be implemented to introduce or reinforce learning material in the classroom. Games tend to relax the classroom atmosphere as all students are exposed to a fun way of learning important content-area curriculum. Games allow ESL learners to hear and practice speaking English. References Lee, S 2012, 'New Talk about ELL Students', Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 93, no. 8.
Loper, T n.d., ESL, retrieved 19 September 2012, http://departments.weber.edu/teachall/eslCases/ESL.htm#Drama.
Loper, T n.d., ESL glossary, interventions and resources, retrieved 19 September 2012, http://departments.weber.edu/teachall/eslCases/ESL.htm#TESOL
Mikulecky, B 2009, 'Teaching Reading in a Second Language', ESL Magazine, vol. March.
Queensland Government 2012, ‘Guidelines for Students with English as a Second Language’ Retrieved 22 September 2012, http://education.qld.gov.au/curriculum/framework/p-12/esl-learners.html
Sunshine Books, 2012, ‘Teaching the World to Read’, Retrieved 15 September 2012, http://www.sunshineonline.com.au/level1.php
Thanasoulas D 2002, ‘The changing winds and shifting sands of the history of English Language Teaching’, Retrieved 26 September 2012, http://www.englishclub.com/tefl-articles/history-english-language-teaching.htm
Young Learner's Songs for ESL n.d., Retrieved 19 September 2012, http://esl.about.com/library/weekly/aa112800a.htm.
YourDictionary 2012, 'ESL Teaching Methods', Retrieved 20 September 2012, http://esl.yourdictionary.com/lesson-plans/esl-teaching-methods.html Experiencing a classroom as an EAL/ESL student