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environmental pollution

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Yingjun Zhao

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of environmental pollution

forms of pollution pollutants sources and causes effects regulation and policy pollution control air pollution
water pollution
soil contamination
radioactive contamination
noise pollution
light pollution
visual pollution
Air pollution comes from both natural and man made sources. Though globally man made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.
Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution.China, United States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries,[13] petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.), PVC factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides In February 2007, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), representing the work of 2,500 scientists from more than 130 countries, said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. But in order to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called dioxins for simplicity, such as TCDD. Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide. A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature
the concentration
the persistence. Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. practices
recycling Pollution control devices

Electrostatic precipitators
Baghouses Scrubbers Baffle spray scrubber
Cyclonic spray scrubber
Ejector venturi scrubber
Mechanically aided scrubber
Spray tower
Wet scrubber Sewage treatment
API oil-water separators
Sedimentation (water treatment)
Dissolved air flotation (DAF)
Activated sludge biotreaters
Powdered activated carbon treatment Vapor recovery systems human health Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50,000. environment Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:

Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.

Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems.
Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web.

Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants.

Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness.

Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process.
Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.
The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.

works cited

Spengler, John D. and Sexton, Ken (1983) "Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective" Science (New Series) 221(4605 ): pp. 9-17, page 9

Hong, Sungmin et al. (1996) "History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice" Science (New Series) 272(5259): pp. 246-249, page 248

L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century",

Environment and History 8 (4), pp. 475-488.

David Urbinato (Summer 1994). "London's Historic "Pea-Soupers"". United States Environmental

Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/perspect/london.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-02.

"Deadly Smog". PBS. 2003-01-17. http://www.pbs.org/now/science/smog.html. Retrieved 2006-08-02.

James R. Fleming; Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. "History of the Clean Air Act". American Meteorological Society. http://www.ametsoc.org/sloan/cleanair/. Retrieved 2006-02-14.

Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website

Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972

Environmental Performance Report 2001 (Transport, Canada website page)

State of the Environment, Issue: Air Quality (Australian Government website page It's time to act!!! cause it's the only place we can live..
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