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AFRICA

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Paulina González

on 12 November 2014

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Transcript of AFRICA

Language:
Arabic (81% of Algerians)
99% Muslim (sunni)
1% Christian and Jewish
Population:
99% Arab-Berbers
1% European
Government
Islam determines political and economical legal lives.


Language:
Arabic (81% of Algerians)
99% Muslim (sunni)
1% Christian and Jewish
Population:
99% Arab-Berbers
1% European
Government
Islam determines political and economical legal lives.


pAULINA gONZÁLEZ
MARIANA TORRES
CLAUDIA RAMOS
RENATA MERCADO
GROUP 52
South Africa -Johannesburg
Somalia - mogadiscio
egypt - El cairo
algeria - Algiers
morocco -Rabat
South africa
Language: 11 official languages
(English, Afrikaans, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swazi, Tsongo, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu)
Religion:
68% Christians
2% Muslim
1.5% Hindu
28.5% Aimists
Population:
75.2% black
13.6% white
8.6% coloured
2.6% indian


Somalia
egypt
Algeria
Morocco
Language:
Arabic (for almost 13 centuries)
Religion:
94% Muslim (sunni)
6% Christian and other
Population:
99% Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers)
1% Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European
Government
Republic
Islam determines personal, political, and economical lives.


Government:
Republic
Language:
Classical Arabic (official language)
Berber is the most widely spoken (10 million Moroccans)
French is used in business
Spanish is spoken in the north part.
Religion:
98.7% Muslim
1.1% Christian
0.2% Jewish
Population:
99.1% Arab-Berber
0.2 % Jewish
Government
Constitutional monarchy

Language:
Somali
Religion:
Almost all Somalis are Sunni muslims.
Islam is also present and it rules their lives.
Government
No effective government.
Symbol
Camel (it provides food and transportation)


AFRICA
References:

Morocco. (2014). Kwintessential. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/morocco-country-profile.html

Algerica. (2014). Kwintessential. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/algeria.html

Egypt. (2014). Kwintessential. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/egypt-country-profile.html

South Africa. (2014). Kwintessential. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/south-africa-country-profile.html

Somali Cultural Profile. (2014). Ethnomed. Retrieved from https://ethnomed.org/culture/somali/somali-cultural-profile

Human Developmentt Indicators (n.d) Human Development Reports. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/LBY

Countries and capitals in Africa (2013) Whereig.com. Retrieved from http://www.whereig.com/world-countries-and-capitals/africa.html

BBC NEWS AFRICA (2014) Somalia Profile: Timeline. BBC NEWS. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14094632
Harris, C. (2011) Conflict in the Horn: Somalia's Civil War. University of San Francisco. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.usfca.edu/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx%3Fid%3D4294973603&sa=U&ei=rqdhVMWrLYqNyASerIHwCQ&ved=0CBYQFjAA&sig2=yFybTJrmxiu5whnRb-L8Uw&usg=AFQjCNF3_jcawzfbWVcm97dw3I9hDeWFsA
BBC NEWS . (2011) Somalia: 20 years of anarchy. BBC news. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12285365




SOMALI CONFLICT
FAILED STATE
WITHOUT FORMAL GOVERNMENT SINCE PRESIDENT SIAD BARRE 1991
CIVIL WAR BETWEEN DIFFERENT WARLORDS: MAHdI AND AIDEED
NATURAL DISASTERS: DROUGHT
INDEPENDENCE OF REPUBLIC OF SOMALILAND IN 2011
IN 2012 A NEW INTERNATIONALLY-BACKED GOVERNMENT WAS INSTALLEd
WAR WITH EUTHIOPIA
ISLAMIST INVASION IN 2006-2014 BY Al shabab group
overview
HDI
TIMELINE OF CONFLICT
CAUSES
Was a BRISITH PROTECTORATE (1884)
ITALIAN PROTECTORATE (1889)
independece in 1960
EXISTANCE OF DIFFERENT CLANS
SOMALI NATIONAL MOVEMENT
SOMALI DEMOCRATIC FRONT
United Somali congress aideed faction
united somali congress li mahdI
SOMALI NATIONAL FRONT
SOMALI PATRIOTIC MOVEMENT
(Whereig.com, 2013)
(Human Development Report)
CONSEQUENCES
HUMANITARIAN CRISIS
more 2 million refugges:
83,000 Somalis in Kenya
54,000 in Ethiopia
2,600 to Djibouti (unhcr,n.d)
drought
1.4 million internally displaced
famine has affected 3 million people
international community intervention:
fao
unhcr
unicef
ILLICIT ACTIONS: PIRACY

1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
INDEPENDENCE OF SOMALIA
UNITED REPUBLIC OF SOMALI
ADEN ABDULLAH OSMAN DAAR
1967
ABDI RASHID ALI SHERMAKE BECAMES PRESIDENT
1969
SHERMAKE IS MURDERED
MUHAMMAS SIAD BARRE TAkES POWER
1970-1975
SOMALIA IS DECLAred A socialist COUNTRY
BARRE nationalizes THE MAJORITY OF THE ECONOMY
SOMALIA FORMS PART OF ARAB LEAGUE
A DROUGHT CAUSES FAMINE
OGADEN WAR
1976-1979
OGAden PART OF ETHIoPIA
SOVIET UNION SUPPORTS ETHIOPIAN FORCES
UNITED STATES HELPS SOMALI FORCES
CONSTITUTION OF 1979
REPUBLIC
GENERAL SIAD BARRE
POWER WITHOUT LIMITS
1988
PEACE WITH ETHIOPIA
1991
GENERAL BARRE IS EXPELLED FROM GOVERNMENT
THE DIFFERENT CLANS FROM UNITED SOMALI CONGRESS
MOHAMED FARAH AIDEED
ALI MAHDI MOHAMED
CONFRONTATiON BETWEEN THESE 2 CLANS
CIVIL WAR CAUSES THOUSANDS OF CIVILIAN CASUALTIES

Aideed
Mahdi
VS.
1992-1995

INERNATI0NAL ACTORS
2000
ABDulkassim SALAT HASSAN is elected as president
fist government since barre in 1991
somali warlord don't support this administration
2004-2005
2006
us intervention in mogadishu
UN PEACE KEEPERS
US ARMY IS DEFEATED AND KILlED "BLaCK HAWK DOWN"
UN INTERVENTION "UNOSOM" FAILS (1992-1995)
2007
2008
Attempt to restore the central government
Abdullahi Yusuf is elected as president
somali government returns home from exile in kenya
Transitional government in kenya
march-may
Fight between militias in mogadishu
violent act: hundred casualties
June-July
Islamic courts army control mogadishu
september
peace talks between government and islamic courts
october
refugees 35,000
war between ethiopia and islamists
Islamists abandon their last stronghold
First u.s. intervention in somalia since 1993 (air strikes)
UN Security Council authorized six-month peacekeeping mission in February
Humanitarian crisis grows
Ethiopians move reinforcements into the city
Prime Minister Ghedi resigns
un allows forces to attack pirates in somali waters (us, nato and eu)
ethiopia withdrawals troops
2009
VS.
ISlamists insurgent advance in the south
somali officials appeal to other countries to send troops to somalia
Al-Shabab recaptures the southern port of Kismayo
2010
FAMINE INCREASES 260, 000 deaths
UN WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME WITHDRAWALS DUE TO VIOLENCE
MOHAMED ABDULLAHI MOHAMED REPLACED PRIME minister SHARMARKE
2011
2012
2013
2014
PIRATE ATTACKS INCREASE
SOMALIAN REGIONS ARE DECLARED AS FAMINE
AL SHABAB TAKES OFF THE BAN TO FOREIGN AID organizations
UN BRINGS ID TO MOGADISHU
KENYAN TROOPS ATTACK REBELS IN SOMALIA
SOMALIA 1ST FORMAL PARLIAMENT SINCE 1991
HASSAN SHEIKH MOHAMUD IS ELECTED PRESIDENT
AFRICAN UNION AND GOVERNMENT RECOVER LAST MAJOR CITY FROM AL SHABAB: MISKAYO
SOMALIA'S GOVERNMENT IS RECOGNIZED BY US
AL SHABAB CONTINUES WITH TERRORIST ATTACKS
PRESIDENTIAL PALACE
UNDP
TURKISH EMBASSY
US PROVIDES MILITARY assistance
NEW ADMINISTRATION IN JUBA BY SHEIKH AHMED MADOBE
MARCH:
CAMPAIGN AGAINST AL SHABAB GAINS SUCCESS
MAY
AL SHABAB ATACKS IN DIJIBOUTI MAJOR CITY
JUNE
EU AND US OFFICIALS WITH PRESIDENT HASSAN DISCUSS POLITICAL SITUATION IN SOMALIA
SEPTEMBER
AL SHABAB LEADER AHMED ABD GODANE IS KILLED BY US
SUCCESSOR IS AHMAD OMAR
(BBC NEWS, 2014)
(Haris, 2011)
(BBC NEWS, 2011)
(bbc news africa, 2014)
OPINION FROM AN EXPERT
INTERVIEW TO PROFESSOR TZINTI RAMÍREZ
1. ¿Cuál es su opinión general sobre el conflicto existente en Somalia?
Que la crisis alimentaria que comenzó en 2010-11 merece atención internacional por poner en peligro la vida de varios millones de personas (entre 3 y 5) y que es una situación tan compleja dada la historia reciente de Somalia.
2.¿Considera que las acciones tomadas por Organismos Internacionales (Naciones Unidas) respecto a la situación fueron correctas?
La respuesta internacional ha sido tibia. es una de las crisis olvidadas (ver campaña Médicos Sin Fronteras- las 7 crisis olvidadas)… aunque cualquier respuesta se enfrentaría a las dificultades de actuar en el marco de un estado fallido.
3. ¿Cuál consideraría que podría ser una solución al conflicto?
La crisis no es exclusiva de Somalia, afecta a sus vecinos especialmente Kenia pero es más difícil de atacar en Somalia porque es un país que carece de instituciones que pueda orquestar una respuesta efectiva. La solución debe ir orientada hacia la recuperación de la agricultura a través de proyectos productivos, a asegurar tecnologías que permitan el abasto de agua y a través del fortalecimiento de la casi totalmente ausente gobernanza en el país para poder dirigir los esfuerzos de manera más eficiente. Ese último es el paso más difícil de lograr dada la tradición de gobierno de clanes que existe en el país. Debe entonces aprovecharse esto último para pactar con los clanes existentes en las regiones más dañadas por la sequía.



united nations (centripetal)
UN peacekeeping sent to restore order and safeguard relief supplies.
The UN Security Council allows countries to send warships to tackle pirates.


Al-Shabab (CENTRIFUGAL)
UN's SUPPORT from Al-Shabab-controlled areas.
Al-Shabab declares alliance with al-Qaeda and keny closes border.
TERRORIST ACTS AND KILLINGS IN PUBLIC PLACES.
Al-Shabab leader KILLED IN THE US.
ILLEGAL GROUP
INTERGOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATION
NATION STATE
ETHIOPIA (CENTRIFUGAL)
Border disputes.
Somalia invades the Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia.
War of words between Ethiopia and Somalia's Islamists, BUT IN 2009, Ethiopia completes the withdrawal of its troops.

NATION STATE
KENYA (CENTRIFUGAL)
Border disputes.
Kenya closes border to Somalia because of Al-Shabab attacks.
Kenyan troops enter Somalia to attack rebels.

NATION STATE
UNITED STATES (CENTRIPETAL)
US, Nato and others deploy ships to Somali waters to combat pirates.
US recognizes Somalia's government IN 1991.
President Barack Obama provideS military assistance to Somalia.
Al-Shabab leader Ahmed Abdi Godane killed in THE US

INTERGOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATION
AFRICAN UNION (CENTRIPETAL)
CAMPAIGN BY AU AGAINST AL-SHABAB IS SUCCESSFUL.
AU peacekeepers land at Mogadishu amid pitched battles between insurgents and government forces.
Full transcript