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Transcript of Tourism Impact
Impacts of Tourism on destination areas
The tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits to both Host countries and tourists’ home countries.
The socio-cultural impacts of are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists and of interaction with the tourism industry.
of Tourism on
In developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement.
of Tourism on Destination Areas
Tourism is usually described as having three major types of impacts on many of the places which tourists visit. These effects are
economic, environmental, and socio-cultural
in nature (and some have mentioned political consequences also).
The most important economic impact that tourism has is that it provides more employment for the people in that area and hence in a way increases their standard of living
Certain economies primarily run on tourism.
As a result it also helps the region as a whole to develop. The governing bodies can also utilize the funds to promote the destination and make it more attractive for tourists.
Economic impacts are mainly considered to be beneficial. These are:
BENEFICIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Generation of foreign exchange
Creation of new job and employment opportunities
Stimulation of trade, income and entrepreneurship - especially in service and small business sectors
BENEFICIAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Increased regional development - particularly in isolated areas
Greater tax revenues permitting greater government spending
Provision of new infrastructure which is available for non-tourism uses
The impacts arise when tourism brings about changes in value systems and behavior, thereby threatening indigenous identity. Furthermore, changes often occur in community structure, family relationships, collective traditional life styles, ceremonies and morality.
The social and cultural ramifications of tourism warrant
careful consideration, as impacts can either become assets
or detriments to communities.
Change of local identity and values
- Conventional tourism can cause change or loss of local identity and values
Commercialization of local culture
- Tourism can turn local culture into commodities when religious traditions, local customs and festivals are reduced to conform to tourist expectations and resulting in what has been called "reconstructed ethnicity
- Destinations risk standardization in the process of satisfying tourists desires while landscape, accommodation, food and drinks, etc., must meet the tourists desire for the new and unfamiliar.
Adaptation to tourist demands
- Tourists want souvenirs, arts, crafts, cultural manifestations. In many tourist destinations, craftsmen have responded to the growing demand and have made changes in the design of their products to make them more in line with the new customers tastes.
cultural clashes can take place as a result of differences in cultures, ethnic and religious groups, values, lifestyles, languages and levels of prosperity.
The attitude of local residents towards tourism development may unfold through the stages of
, where visitors are very welcome, through apathy, irritation and antagonism when anti-tourist attitudes begin to grow among local people.
Cultural clashes may further arise through:
- locals and tourists who are spending more than they usually do at home.
Irritation due to tourist behavior
- Tourists often, out of ignorance or carelessness, fail to respect local customs and moral values.
Job level friction
- due to a lack of professional training, many low-paid tourism-jobs go to local people while higher-paying and more prestigious managerial jobs go to
Cultural deterioration -
damage to cultural heritage may arise from vandalism, littering, pilferage and illegal removal of cultural heritage items or by changing the historical landscape that surrounds it
Resource use conflicts
such as competition between tourism and local populations for the use of prime resources like water and energy because of scarce supply
Conflicts with traditional land
- also may arise in coastal areas, when the construction of shoreline hotels and tourist faculties cuts off access for the locals to traditional fishing grounds and even recreational use of the areas.
is mainly consists of ideals, norms, values and assumptions about life that are extensively shared among people who guide a specific way of life and behavior for a specific society
is an interaction between the tourists and host society because of cultural pull forces at the destination e.g. culture and social values including tangible and intangible elements of culture.
- refers to the interaction of people and other organisms with each other, and to their collective co-existence.
Social tourism -
is the inclusion of people living on a low income in holiday and leisure activities.
It can also refer to using tourism to positively impact on deprived/developing communities.
Impacts of Tourism
on Destination Areas
Possible adverse effects caused by
a development, industrial, or infrastructural
project or by the release of a substance
in the environment.
The quality of the environment, both natural
and man-made, is essential to tourism.
However, tourism's relationship with the
environment is complex.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
1. Loss of Biological Diversity
Tourism, is closely linked to biodiversity and the attractions created by a rich and varied environment.
It can also cause loss of biodiversity when land and resources are strained by excessive use, and when impacts on vegetation,wildlife, mountain, marine and coastal environments and water resources exceed the carrying capacity.
This loss of biodiversity in fact means loss of tourism potential.
The effects of loss of biodiversity
It threatens food supplies, opportunities for recreation and tourism, and sources of wood, medicines and energy.
It interferes with essential ecological functions such as species balance, soil formation, and greenhouse gas absorption.
It reduces the productivity of ecosystems, thereby shrinking nature's basket of goods and services, from which we constantly draw.
It destabilizes ecosystems and weakens their ability to deal with natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and hurricanes, and with human-caused stresses, such as pollution and climate change.
2. DEPLETION OF THE OZONE LAYER
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
The ozone layer, which is situated in the upper atmosphere protects life on earth by absorbing the harmful wavelengths of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which in high doses is dangerous to humans and animals.
Refrigerators, air conditioners and propellants in aerosol spray cans, amongst others, contain ODS's and are widely used in the hotel and tourism industry.
Emissions from jet aircraft
are also a significant source of ODS's. According to
scientists predict that by 2015 half of the annual destruction of the ozone layer will be caused by
UNEP's OzonAction Programme
works with governments and industries, including the tourism industry, to phase out ODSs and find safer alternatives.
3. CLIMATE CHANGE
Global tourism is closely linked to climate change. Tourism involves the movement of people from their homes to other destinations and accounts for about 50% of traffic movements; rapidly expanding air traffic contributes about 2.5% of the production of CO2. Tourism is thus a significant contributor to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
itself is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. Passenger jets are the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. The number of international travelers is expected to increase from 594 million in 1996 to 1.6 billion by 2020, adding greatly to the problem unless steps are taken to reduce emissions
4. Natural Disasters
Catastrophes like floods, earthquakes, wildfires, volcanoes, avalanches, drought and diseases can have a serious effect on inbound and domestic tourism and thus on local tourism industries.
Impacts of Tourism
Negative impact of tourism
Increase in Prices
Seasonal Character of Jobs
Positive Impacts of Tourism
Foreign Exchange Earnings
Contributions to government revenues
Contribution to local economies
Strategies to Maximize Economic Impact of Tourism
1. Development Considerations and Analysis
2. Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSAs)
The purpose of a tourism satellite account is to analyze in detail all the aspects of demand for goods and services associated with the activity of visitors; to observe the operational interface with the supply of such goods and services within the economy; and to describe how this supply interacts with other economic activities
Satellite national accounting
Tourism and regional development
3. Modifying the Host Destination’s Socioeconomic Structure
Maximizing tourism’s positive economic impacts
Encouraging import substitution
Implementing incentive programs
4. Dealing with Multinational Tourism Companies
Hotel and restaurant chains
Travel agencies and tour operators
Criticized for operating to benefit their own profitability at the expene of destination areas
May engage in policies that run counter to national tourism plans
Limited opportunities for locals to take management positions
Three Major Economic Impacts of Tourism
Increasing foreign exchange earnings
1. Increasing Foreign Exchange Earnings
Purchasing goods and services to satisfy the needs of visitors.
Importing goods and materials for infrastructure and buildings required for tourism development.
Paying foreign factors of production.
2. Increasing Income
The ad hoc or simple multiplier
Economic impact models
Tourism satellite accounts
3. The Multiplier Measures Three Levels of Income
: The first round of spending by visitors in the destination area.
The second round of expenditures by businesses who receive the first round of visitor spending.
The third and subsequent rounds of expenditures after the second round
Tourism development produces many jobs
Primary or direct employment (lodging, restaurants, attractions, transportation, sightseeing)
Indirect employment (construction, agriculture, manufacturing)
Principles of Sustainable
- Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities.
Sustainable tourism should:
Make optimal use of environmental resources
Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities
Maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction
Ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists
Raising their awareness about sustainability issues
Promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them.
Principles of sustainable tourism
Minimization of negative tourism impacts
Natural and Cultural preservation and conservation
Promotion of visitor observation and comprehension (environment)
Efficient use of resources in tourism
Participation and information
More meaningful tourism experiences
Promotion of visitor observation and comprehension (culture)
Economic independence of local people
Importance of policy, planning and management
Emphasis of limits to tourism development
Generation of economic profit for local people
Economic independence of local people
Types of sustainable tourism:
Solidarity and responsible tourism
Potential Negative Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism
1. Damage to family structures and subsistence food production.
2. Displacement of local people to make way for airports, resorts, nature reserves, historical and other attraction sites, and other tourism development projects.
3. Encouragement of behaviors such as begging, touting, and other harassment of visitors
4. Encouragement of urbanization and emigration.
5. Friction and resentment between local people and visitors because of overcrowding and lack of access for residents to recreational areas and facilities.
6. Increase in health risks through diseases such as AIDS, malaria, hepatitis, and influenza
Positive Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism
May encourage attempts to keep culture and traditions alive.
Traditional ways and goods may be restored because visitors are interested and are willing buyers of these.
Festivals staged for visitors help to keep local cultures alive
Potential Negative Environmental Impacts of Tourism on destination areas
1. Changes of land use.
2. Congestion and air pollution.
3. Contribution to worldwide environmental problems.
4. Deterioration and disturbance of the natural ecology
5. Deterioration of archaeological, historical, architectural, and natural sites
6. Impacts of foot traffic.
7. Pollution of beaches, lakes, rivers, and underground water.
8. Visual clutter.
9. Insufficient utility service capacities
Positive Environmental Impacts of Tourism Identify the positive environmental impacts
1. Greater protection of specific ecosystems.
2. More control of harmful economic activities such as logging and commercial fishing.
3. Part of visitor expenditures may be reinvested in research and better conservation programs.
4. Greater understanding among local residents of environmental issues.