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Chronicles of a Death Foretold IO
Transcript of Chronicles of a Death Foretold IO
Simran Sakraney Violence
in chronicles of a Death Foretold Latin American culture Techniques Questions for discussion The End! In colonial times in Colombia, the elite class was made up of mostly of non-Colombians. These people are usually born into the power they have.
The differences in social class is apparent in the novel when Bayardo San Roman, a foreigner in the elite class, buys expensive and luxurious gifts for Angela Vicario in order to impress her and her family and lure her into marriage.(PG.30) culture cont. Question for discussion: how do social positions influence power/violence in our society? Men of the elite class dominated in culture and society. The notion of machismo is very prevalent in the Hispanic culture, even today. However, in the time that the novel was set, machismo was very much the norm.
Machismo is the belief that men rule all aspects of culture, and that women have very few, if any rights. In colonial times, men had the support of their local governments in order to have this power. Laws were set up to give men the rights to do whatever they wanted, and their victims had very little recourse.
In this culture, virginity was of utmost value. In fact, when Bayardo San Roman realized that his wife was not a virgin, he felt dishonored and betrayed and “gave her back” to her parents. This brought about great shame and dishonor in the family, and it ruined her reputation for a very long time. The Vicario brothers were so humiliated that they felt that it was their duty to seek revenge by taking Santiago’s life to regain their sister's honor. They felt obligated to do what their father would have normally done had he not lost his eyesight. Treatment and Values Purisima del Carmen, the matriarch of the Vicario family, said in the novel, when referring to her well brought up daughters, ”Any man will be happy with them because they have been raised to suffer.”
This quote shows that women in this society are expected to tolerate violence and endure suffering at the hands of their husbands, fathers, or other men in their lives.
Also,that men held all power over women during this time in this culture. Men of the elite or aristocratic class had even more power than the men in lower classes, and so they had more authority.
For example, Divina Flor, the maid’s daughter, as well as the mulatto girls, did not only serve the men in household duties, but in providing sexual pleasures as well.
Divina Flor: Santiago Nassar p. 13 -Chronicle of a Death Foretold is has an interesting style because of the combination journalistic and fictitious style used in the book.
- In the 1920s and 1930s, Latin American novels mostly did the job of portraying regional or national life and customs of Hispanics. Basically, this pertains to the “realist era”.
-Later, in the 1940s, novels changed. Latin American novels were now based on inventions.
-Marquez embraced this idea and created new realities in his novels, not existing themes.
-Magic-realism came along, which is the incorporation of mythological, magical, or supernatural ideas into what seems like realistic writing.
-Chronicle of a Death Foretold mostly shows Marquez’s skills as a successful journalist. Marquez and his work -Gabriel Garcia Marquez was born in Aracataca, Colombia in 1928.
-He was the eldest of sixteen children.
-His family left Aracataca, and he was left with his maternal grandparents.
-The fact that he grew up with his parents greatly influenced his fictional techniques and ideas.
-His grandmother told him stories of ghosts and supernatural beings, and his grandfather shared stories of the Colombian Civil War with him.
-He went to college to study law, he was also interested in journalism, but after reading several serious works, The -Metamorphosis being the most influential to him, he decided to write.
-He became a reporter and a successful writer. He won a Nobel Literature Prize for A Thousand Years of Solitude. Life of the Author Gabriel Garcia Marquez -Garcia Marquez shows his journalistic background in the novel.
-Garcia Marquez studied journalism and was a very important and influential journalist before becoming a writer.
-"Journalistic, realistic, and detective novel"
-The story moves in an inverted fashion, starting from the end and moving backwards.
-The novel uses various journalistic techniques:
-The inverted Pyramid is perhaps the most important technique in journalism, where the first sentence or two contain the most important aspects of the story. Marquez does this in The Chronicle of a Death Foretold, revealing the death of Santiago Nasar in the first lines. Then, details are arranged in order of importance to create a whole picture in the inverted pyramid structure as well as the in the novel.
-Marquez gives very seemingly insignificant details, such as the fact the Santiago woke up at exactly 5:30, but he always answers the questions of who, what, when, where and how. This is very important for any journalistic writing. Journalistic Style in the Book -Garcia Marquez is Roman Catholic.
-He uses many religious allusions in the novel.
-Such examples of this are:
-The stab on Santiago's hand
-He is murdered wearing a white linen suit, which imitates images of Biblical robes and of sacrificial lambs, this could suggesting Santiago's ultimate innocence.
-Santiago is stabbed on a wooden door, like Christ on the wooden cross.
-Santiago's death was public, like Christ on the cross: a public crucifixion.
Do you think that the Catholic Church and religion in Marquez's fictional town did accept/support the murder of Santiago Nasar as a trial for honor? Portrayal of Religion Marriage Religion Superstition During this time period, the only way a woman could secure a stable economic lifestyle was through marriage. Financial dependency on males is still seen all over the world, including in our contemporary society-- America. Double standards Virginity and purity are only expected from women. (This is as a result of the Machismo mindset) Ex. Sanitago Nasar was known to frequent at local brothel & had a physical relationship with María Alejandrina Cervantes Narrator: “There’s no place in life sadder than an empty bed” -pg 65 Incidents that challenge this complex as well as the unbreakable traditions lead to violence. Do you agree or disagree with this statement, and why? Omnipresent and a societal norm during this time period
In Chronicles of a Death Foretold: Heavily Catholic Bishop Father Amador “Leave him for later, if only out
of respect for his grace the bishop.” -pg.16 Bishop disregards the townspeople & their gifts. "My first thought was that it wasn't any business of mine" -Pg.70 "We killed him openly...but we are innocent"
"Perhaps before god" -Pg.49 Metaphors -Chronicle of a Death Foretold is actually based on an a real murder that occured in the town of Sucre, Colombia.
-It is believed that Garcia Marquez was acquainted to the various victims of the murder.
-On Jan 22, 1951, rich medical student Cayetano Chimento was butchered with a machete.
-He reportedly had deflowered a woman named Margarita
-She was returned to her family on her wedding night by her groom Miguel Reyes Palencia.
Do you believe that a similar situation could occur in our society today? Perhaps not the killing, but a man defending his honor through a violent act? The Real Story... Do you think that the fact that the narrator (and the author) were journalists affected how the story was told? -In various cultures, violence is a showing
of a man's strength.
-Through violence, a man gains honor and dignity.
-In the setting of a Chronicle of A Death Foretold, education was not widespread. This is not like the world that we live in, where words can settle a conflict, in the world of Chronicle of a Death Foretold, words and education weren't available. In the absence of words, action has to be taken, and that form of action is violence.
-Violent actions can be taken for many reasons, they are a manifestation of strong human emotions, in the case of the novel it was for honor.
-Honor was mostly influenced by what the town thought of the Vicario brothers. In order not to lose honor, the Viocario brothers committed a violent act. Violence Slaughtered Animals
The author uses slaughtered animals repeatedly to compare the brutality of Santiago's death.
One of these metaphors is seen in page 118, where the Vicario twins sloppily kill him the same way they kill pigs.
Another metaphor are the singing roosters in the first chapter, on the morning of Santiago's murder. This could be a metaphor of the "wake up" call of the town, when they realized that the twins truly went through their plans to kill Santiago.
After the murder of Santiago the Vicario twins cannot remove the smell of Santiago from their skin or clothes. In fact the entire town is filled with his smell. This represents the guilt the town has over not being able to prevent his death. Allusions
An allusion is used to make an indirect reference to something such as a text or a person. The author mostly makes allusions to the bible.In the case of Santiago, he uses allusions to emphasize his innocence in regards to deflowering Angela
In Page 117, Santiago was stabbed through the palm and into his side. This is an allusion to the crucifixion of Christ, who was also stabbed (nailed) through his palm and stabbed at the side.
On Page 5, Santiago dresses in white. This is also an allusion to Christ, who is believed to be dressed in white the day before and of his crucifixion.
On Page 13, The roosters start crowing the moment the bishop's boat stopped tooting. This is an allusion to Peter's betrayal of Christ and can be interpreted as the town's betrayal to Santiago.
Santiago's last name, Nasar, is also a reference to Jesus. Nazareth is Jesus's hometown and he is known to historian as Jesus the Nazarene. Nasar comes from Nazarene. Thereby making a direct comparison between Jesus and Santiago and further affirming his innocence. Imagery Imagery in literature is used to help convey the message of the writer and to appeal to the 5 senses of the reader. In the case of Marquez, he uses imagery describe the characters and to depict how brutal the murder of Santiago truly was.
"Angela was the prettiest of the four,and my mother said that she had been born like the great queens of history, with the umbilical cord wrapped around her neck."
-Marquez describes Angelica as great and compares her to royalty even. But although she was fit to be a princess she was born under the tyranny of her mother; the imagery allows the reader to effectively imagine as an oppressed beauty.
"Desperate, Pablo Vicario gave him a horizontal slash on the stomach, and all the intestines fell out... Santiago was still for an instant, leaning against the door until he saw his own viscera in the sunlight, clean and blue, and he fell on his knees." Pg 119.
-Here, Marquez tries to point out the horror of the murder, even tries to gross out the reader. His explicit detail makes the reader cringe imagining the bloodshed that took place. -Violence is a recurring theme of human nature.
-In our society, most violence is not rightfully excused. Except in some cases, for example war where mass murder is justified.
-This cannot be compared to the views of violence in other cultures and contexts, including that of the novel.
-Violence was accepted, and even expected to show some kind of dignity.
-Like Prudencia Cotes, who was engaged to Pablo Vicario who said that they had to kill Santiago, or she wouldn't have married him.
In this context, do you think that the Vicario brothers were also victims to the society's standards and expectations? Why or why not? Violence in Other Cultures Superstition As mentioned, Gabriel Garcia Marquez was greatly influenced by his grandmother, who was extremely superstitious and plagued Marquez's mind with stories of ghost and magical events.
The superstitious element in the novel, which goes hand in hand with the magical realism is due to this influence from his grandmother.
The best example of this is through Santiago's mother, who was known as the "interpreter of dreams".
She claimed that the dreams that Santiago was having were connected to a death in the near future.
Other superstitious events that are evident in the novel are:
When Clotide Arementa recalled that Santiago "already looked like a ghost that day."
As Magot Santiaga and Santiago were talking, she said that she could "feel the angel pass by".
Dreams and visions serve as an important part of the novel. How does magical realism, superstition, and surrealism help unfold the novel? Superstitions play a major role in revealing aspects of the small coastal village as well as Latin American culture in general. "[Placia Linero] never forgave herself for having mixed up the magnificent augury of trees with the unlucky one of birds."-98 "The widower Xius told the mayor that he'd seen a phosphorescent bird fluttering over his former home, and he thought it was the soul of his wife"-84 Irony Irony in the novel is the central technique used. Other than the irony which is central to the plot, an entire town failing to warn a man of his death, Marquez uses irony to criticize society and its flaws.
On page 72, Father Amador is forced to preform an autopsy despite the fact the catholic church prohibits any contact with the deceased. This is used to criticize the failure of authority to take over a serious matter (it was the mayor's "stupid" idea to make the autopsy)
The twins are declared innocent despite the fact everyone knows it was them who killed Santiago. This criticizes How society views the guilty and the innocent and the failure of the law to make justice.
Another example is the fact that Santiago was killed with pig knives. In Arab culture, pigs are considered impure, which would add insult to injury to Santiago. Not only was he murdered brutality but he was also murdered with indignant weapons. Do you think violence is a necessary quality in humanity? Do you think the author, Gabriel García Márquez
would agree or disagree, why?