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Monroe Doctrine and the War of 1812

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Jase Jacobson

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Monroe Doctrine and the War of 1812

1812; Great Britain was impressing ships of the united states, taking sailors captive and stealing goods. The American public cried for war. James Madison was President of the U.S. at the time. Madison went to Congress after having tried for a long time to negotiate peace with the British. Congress gave a Declaration of War much to the American public's joy. However by this point, the British had already agreed to stop harassing the American Navy. This news of course, had not yet reached the Americans because there were no systems of efficient communication at this time. Meanwhile, the Napoleanic wars were occuring between France and Britain back in Europe, and Britain was angry with the United States for not assisting them. The American people were justified in going to war, however it was a rash decision, as we were sorely outmatched. In 1814, the British turned their full attention to the United States, having dealt with Napolean. Sending a dispatch of 4,000 troops to the District of Columbia to burn the Capitol and crush the American spirit. Leading his forces personally, Madison met the enemy on the field of battle, a short distance away from the city. They were quickly defeated and retreated with the first lady and the citizens. Leaving the British troops to systematically destroy the capital. After sacking the Capital, a separate detachment of British troops headed up Chesapeake Bay to attack the the area of Baltimore. Aboard one of their ships was an American captive by the name of Francis Scott Key. Upon witnessing the defeat of the British troops at the hands of the American soldiers, Francis wrote the National Anthem; "The Star Spangled Banner" Aug 15-16; Americans surrendered to the guerrilla warfare of the British troops who had allied with Native American soldiers in Detroit, Michigan. Across the sea in Ghent, Belgium, a treaty was signed ending the war of 1812 between England and America. The Treaty of Ghent was announced on December 24th, 1814. However it did not reach the United States until February of the next year. Belgium Before American troops had received word of the treaty, a large battle was fought over New Orleans, Louisiana. General Andrew Jackson defended the city against three attacks on the city, each time successfully driving back the British onslaught. The final battle occurring on the 8th of January 1815, left 300 British dead and 1,250 more wounded and 500 more captured. While only 13 Americans were killed and 39 injured. Though the war had no clear victor, and there were many losses on both sides, the American people were lucky enough to have a few lasting victories. Such as the battle of Fort McHenry, which brought about the Star-Spangled Banner. And the Battle of New Orleans, which gave us a war hero by the name of Andrew Jackson.
After the war was over, Madison continued his presidency until 1822 when James Monroe became the next president. In 1823, James Monroe was President of the United State. During his annual address to Congress on December 23rd, Monroe announced the American Foreign Policy, which later became known as "The Monroe Doctrine". In his address, Monroe stated that the European powers could no longer colonize the Americas, as they were already occupied. And that they would treat any invasive European Government as a direct threat. Also he stated that the United States would stay out of European affairs. The Americans formed a double standard here, one they held the Europeans too but did not hold themselves to. In 1823, on December 2nd James Monroe gave his annual address to Congress. His speech was written by John Adams and dealt with foreign policies. Later it was to become known as the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine stated that Europe could no longer attempt to colonize the Americas, or enforce any of their systems of government on the Americas. Any attempt to do either of these things would be viewed as hostile. Furthermore, it stated that the United States would stay out of European affairs. Theodore Roosevelt first broke the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 to allow himself the right to intervene in conflicts between the Latin American countries and European countries, with the exercise of military power to dispel the Europeans from the Americas. The Truman Doctrine was another addition to the Monroe Doctrine stating that the United States could send equipment/ forces to any nations under threat of communism, including Iran, Greece and Turkey. George W. Bush also manipulated the Monroe Doctrine, he changed the foreign policy so that the United States could take action against terrorism by using preemptive war against the potential aggressors. The Monroe Doctrine, while not immediately effective paved a path for foreign policy that was later used by Presidents to do what was necessary to protect the United States and its interests. Even if these actions were contradictory to the original doctrine and were invasive of other countries.
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