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5 Theories Of Learning (Jigsaw Presentation)

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Channing Grinnell

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of 5 Theories Of Learning (Jigsaw Presentation)

Behaviorism
Cognitive
Channing Grinnell
5 Theories Of Learning
Social Cognitive
Constructivism
Think Of This As: Compare To Training A Dog, Traditional Model, Learning Viewed As "Black & White", Memorization Of Facts

The mind is a "Blank Slate" & we are "Black Boxes."
Our environment conditions us & molds us.
Feelings can't be measured, measurements must be taken in responses to stimuli.
Learning occurs when observable behavior changes.
Think Of This As: The File Folders In Our Brain, The Past Shapes Today, Individual, Internal

Cognitive theory determines how to understand new information based on past experiences & knowledge.
It is filling in the blanks of an experience based on prior experiences.
It is often visualized as a file folder system in our brains.
When presented with new information, our brain will either reject it, file in an existing folder, or create a new folder for it.
Disequilibrium is often felt with new experiences.
When the new encounter is first recognized, the brain's response is to discomfort, unbalanced, & anxiety.
Once a balance in restored & our brain adapt, we decide whether to "file" the information or reject it.

Humanism
Think Of This As: Learning Through Discovery, Group Work, Collaborative, Critical Thinking

Teacher & Student learn from each other in this theory.
Students are involved in their own learning.
This is often seen through discovery with the help of experiments, discussions, & hands on experiences.
Characteristics of this theory & learning style include:
interaction
conversation
collaboration
personalization
In order for learning to occur, the language must be age & developmentally appropriate.
Think Of This As: Monkey See, Monkey Do, Modeling, Internal, "How To", Step By Step, Structured

Students learn through observation of people & environment.
Modeling is following step by step instructions.
Models are usually good at what they do, prestigious, & powerful.
It can be teacher, peer, or parent.
It can be famous or notorious.
Changes are internal, therefore change may not be able to be observed.
New behaviors are often learned by setting goals.
Observation is often the reinforcer, behaviors are adjusted based on what is seen.
Example: Student sees what is praised/punished & will then model themself based on observation.
Bibliography
Mcleod, S. (2010). Zone of proximal development. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html

McNeely, R. S. (2007). Theories of learning: learning theories in the early childhood classroom environment . Informally published manuscript, Education Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Retrieved from http://web.utk.edu/~rmcneele/classroom/theories.html

Moeai, P. (2009). [Web log message]. Retrieved from https://wilsonemints.wikispaces.com/file/detail/Constructivist Science Lesson Plan for the Sixth Grade.doc

Ormrod, J. E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners. Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and Language. Second Edition. Boston, MA: The MIT Press
Examples
Positive & Extrinsic Reinforcement: Students are taught to memorize the math facts, regurgitate them on the test, & earn a prize for achievement.

Negative & Intrinsic Reinforcement: Teacher assigns an extensive group project, the group chooses to finish early to remove stress, & then use the extra time to read for enjoyment.

Commonly seen through: memorization
of math facts, science formulas, &
grammar rules.
Pros & Cons
Pros:
Memorization is sometimes needed to build education foundations.
Reinforcement can be a great motivator.
Shaping behaviors through reinforcement can give basic skills needed to achieve higher success.
Cons:
Learning is also emotional, but feelings are never considered.
Critical thinking is never used.
Examples
Modeling: A teacher shows the class how to do a multi-step math problem on the board. She then has the students follow along step by step on their own paper while they do another problem together. The student is them given another problem and asked to do the problem alone following the learned steps.

Goals & Self Efficacy: A student sets a goal of a high GPA, follows the teacher's modeling of instruction, as well as the model of the star students in the classroom. The student feels high confidence that he can achieve his goal because of past successes. He feels motivated & eventually obtains his goal of high GPA.
Pros & Cons
Pros:
It can provide confidence by providing proficiency at a detailed skill.
It gives recognition & importance to the internal side of learning.
It teaches self motivation, self instruction, & self rewarding.
Cons:
Student may not be able to overcome negative self efficacy.
Not all skills can be self taught through modeling.
It is age specific and could not be used at all age levels.
Relation To Others
It closely relates to cognitive theory in that they are both are very internal & external changes are not easily observed.
It is on the other end of the spectrum from humanism & constructivism because it is very structured & uses modeling instead of discovery for instruction.
It's relation to behaviorism is not very close because behaviorism is mostly external, while social cognitive is internal. Behaviorism relies on reinforcement as motivation to learn, while social cognitive relies on self teaching through modeling & self satisfaction as motivation.
Relations To Others
Cognitive theory closely resembles constructivism in that both allow for some discovery, but cognitive theory still incorporates teacher lecture and influence in information.
It differs from humanism because cognitive theory still provides boundaries & teacher guidance, while humanism remains student controlled & led.
Social cognitive & cognitive theories do share the fact that both are internal, but cognitive is more effective on an individual level instead of group.
Behaviorism & cognitive theory share little to no similarities. Behaviorism is external & traditional, while cognitive is internal & often hands on.
Examples
The teacher starts by asking opened ended questions on a topic, such as milk, to the students. Examples of these questions are: where does milk come from, how is it made, where do you get it from. The students will think about the questions to themselves and hypothesize the answers.

The teacher will allow them to share their answers, perhaps even do a hands on activity to test their hypothesis. The teacher will then step in and give the appropriate evidence and correct answers to the original questions.

The teacher will be challenged to break through any walls causing them to reject the new information. The teacher will be successful when she adds onto the correct information some students already held and encourages students to reject any inaccurate information previously held.
Pros & Cons
Pros:
It builds learning based on prior knowledge, making learning & knowledge more memorable.
It combines a traditional method with many hands on activities to further understanding.
It focuses on on individual needs more than group needs.
Cons:
Every individual's experience will be different, it may be hard to reach all students.
Some students will be more apt to reject new information, instead of storing & building on it.
Teachers can't see if students are "filing" the information in appropriate places or if they are still not grasping the context of the new information.
Example
A teacher gives all of her students a moon journal. She tells them for 2 weeks, she needs them to look at the moon before bed, draw what the moon looks like, & describe what they think the moon looks like.

After the 2 weeks, the teacher will do a small presentation describing and showing what each phase of the moon looks like. She will then have then write in their journals what each night's moon phase was based on what they just learned. They will then compare with their peers to look for similarities.

The teacher will have them repeat the exercise for 2 weeks, this time asking them to draw and label using the correct phase name. She will be able to assess their grasp of the content based on the 2nd attempt results.
Relation To Others
Humanism & constructivism are very similar in that they both promote student discovery & student led learning.
It is also similar to cognitive theory because they both use experimentation to foster learning, but cognitive theory allows for more teacher interaction & lecture. Students do not have quite the same freedom with cognitive theory, as it does with constructivism.
Constructivism & behaviorism are on opposite ends of the spectrum. Behaviorism is traditional & external, while constructivism is non-traditional & both external & internal.
Social cognitive theory is similar to constructivism in that group work & influence is a common feature. However, they differ because social cognitive is led my modeling, while constructivism is led by discovery.
Pros & Cons
Pros:
Student discovery often leads to deeper learning.
Students often enjoy the learning process more because it is more engaging.
Students gain confidence and critical thinking skills through the discovery methods.

Cons:
This theory can be very time consuming, leading to future problems with covering all required frameworks.
A student's stubbornness to abandon previous, incorrect conceptions may be difficult to overcome.
Students can get easily get caught up in activity and miss the content if not presented with some boundaries.
Examples
A teacher tells the class that they are going to learn about Macbeth. She hands them all a copy of the book. She tells them all they can choose a project to reflect what they learn from the book. She gives no boundaries in the project, other to justify what lead them to choose that.

On presentation day, the students brought in a wide range of projects. Some of the projects included a book report, a Macbeth version of monopoly, a designed t-shirt, a drama, & a song played on guitar.
Pros & Cons
Pros:
By allowing students a choice in how they learn, they will be more engaged with the topic.
Students tend to be more enthusiastic about the subject being focused on.

Cons:
This theory can make assessing learning difficult for teachers.
Students will not share same enthusiasm on all subjects & might avoid learning any undesired subjects.
Students might not be prepared for the real world if only desired subjects & topics were learned.
Relations To Others
Humanism is most similar to constructivism because both theories support student discovery & are somewhat student led. They do differ in that constructivism has more boundaries than humanism.
Since students choose how they want to learn, the disequilibrium of new experiences will not be evident like it is in cognitive theory. However, it can be assumed that past experiences might influence the student choices in this theory similar to how it influences how students interpret information in cognitive theory.
Behaviorism is almost the exact opposite of humanism. They do not share any similarities.
Social cognitive theory is also very far from humanism on the spectrum. They are very opposite in nature (modeling vs student choice, teacher led vs student led) & share little to no similarities.
Behaviorism
Learning is achieved through reinforcement.
Positive reinforcement: stimulus presented after behavior
It can be intrinsic & extrinsic reinforcers.
Negative reinforcement: the removal of stimuli
Primary Enforcement
Our basic needs satisfied
Secondary Enforcement
Our physiological needs satisfied
It is seen through token economy, intrinsic, & extrinsic reinforcers.
Timing is key with reinforcement & students must see continuity.
Operant conditioning can be used to shape students behaviors.
Continuous reinforcement is steady, but leads to quicker extinction.
Intermittent reinforcement may take longer for desired behavior to be achieved, but takes longer to go into extinction.
Reinforcement can be used as motivation both individually or in groups.
Contingency contracts can help define a baseline, goals, and set reinforcement in motion.
Relation To Others
Behaviorism is on the opposite side of the spectrum from humanism & constructivism. It does not incorporate any critical thinking or discovery.
It does not typically use prior knowlege like cognitive does, but instead probably establishes many of the initial "folders" the cognitive mind establishes.
It most closely relates to social cognitive, in that modeling can use reinforcement & memorization. However, social cognitive takes internal feelings into consideration & behaviorism does not.
Social Cognitive
Self efficacy recognition is crucial for student & teacher.
It gives expectations on if success or failure will occur based on past experiences.
This can be seen in responses to individual & group work.
Self-regulation aid in motivation & behavior changes.
This teaches students to work towards realistic goals they set.
It helps bring intrinsic gratification.
Students are taught four methods to contribute towards their self-regulation.
Strategies: Emotional Calming
counting, deep breaths
Self Instruction: Self Talk
working through problem in steps, talking through each step internally
Self Monitoring: Assessing self
checking work, talking it out
Contingencies: Self Reinforcement
self rewards and gifts
Teachers grade on improvement & growth, rather than mastery.
Privacy should take priority to keep focus on self improvement & growth.
Cognitive
Cognitive theory uses four organizations to organize thoughts.
Organization through concepts:
classifying things based on general groups
Organization through schema & script:
filling in lost information in order for it to make sense, information found through past experiences; known as building blocks
Organization through themes:
conclusions found through beliefs & general understanding; helps determine if something can be changed into something else
Organization through worldview
when culture shapes conclusions; a person is not usually self aware of this organization since culture is typically not a choice
Cognitive theory is based on individuals, not groups.
Teachers must be aware that all students have different personal experiences.
Learning is achieved by breaking barriers & encouraging them to disregard disbelief/belief in inaccurate information.
Constructivism
Constructivism is primarily group work focused.
Sharing knowledge with one another is encouraged to promote learning for everyone.
Competition is not encouraged.
No timelines are used in constructivism, instead timeline is developed at student/group's own pace.
Social Interaction is an important characteristic of this theory.
Examples: Peer tutoring, teacher reciprocity
Social factors can also influence timelines both positively & negatively.
Learning can be achieved through the aid provided in scaffolding.
Scaffolding is learning through some form of limited assistance.
Examples: encouragement, instruction, demonstration
Zone of development proximity (ZPD) is when someone is close to accomplishing a task or understanding content & scaffolding helps push them through to accomplishment & understanding.

Humanism
Self-handicapping can become a barrier for teachers to overcome.
Students tend to think they will fail, therefore their lack of confidence is reflected in their learning.
This can lead to setting unobtainable goals, procrastination, & giving self too many tasks to do.
Teacher roles in humanism are very limited.
Teachers are there to give them choices in how they want to learn.
Teachers are also responsible for tracking progress in some way.
Humanism is very non-traditional & often seen specialized schools.
Montessori Schools, Free Schools, Unschooling homeschool
5 Theories Of Learning
Today we will learn:

What are the 5 theories of learning?

What are examples of their use in real world classrooms?

What are the pros & cons of each?

How do they relate to one another?
Think Of This As: Thinking Outside Of The Box, Student Led, Student Driven, Minimal Teacher Influence, No Competition

Learning is driven through self motivation & a desire to want to learn.
Motivation comes from both extrinsic & intrinsic motivation.
Hierarchy of needs contributes to the want & desire to learn.
Physiological: Basic needs for survival
Safety: Physically & emotionally safe
Love/Belonging: Feelings that teacher/peer likes & accepts you
Esteem: Confidence in abilities
Self-Actualization: Desire for self-fulfillment & reaching highest potential
Full transcript