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Assessing and teaching reading: fluency and comprehension
Transcript of Assessing and teaching reading: fluency and comprehension
one that is most readily assessed and monitored. Fluency has three parts: rate of reading, accuracy of word reading, and prosody or the expression used while reading. Frequently measured by number of words correct pre minute (WCPM) and observations of phrasing, smoothness, and pace. Critical points to consider while assessing reading fluency: • Passages that are used • Every word pronounced correctly is considered read correctly • Words counted as errors include mispronunciations, substitutions and omissions. • When students pause for more than three seconds you should tell them the word and then mark it as error. Response to Intervention (RTI) in lower grades is an important data source for decision making Teaching Fluency: Number of words read correctly in one minute (-) the number of errors should be comparably leveled each time to make sure documented assesment is accurate Theory of automaticity Fluent readers automatically process information at the visual and phonological levels and are therefore able to focus most of their attention on the meaning of the text integrating this information into their existing knowledge. Reading aloud: Allows teacher to model fluent reading Provides background knowledge for students Exposes books that may be too difficult to read Enables less adept readers to serve as cross-age tutors Repeated Reading: Reading short meaningful passages several times until a satisfactory level of fluency is reached Practice identifying unknown words with relying on their memory of language flow Improves rate of reading in elementary students with reading problems (not so much with older students) Especially effective with ELLs Previewing Books: Choral Repeated Reading: Teacher reads – teacher and student reads – student reads
Make sure to note words that are consistently unrecognizable As you repeat this process the length of sections increase while the number of times you and student read together decrease. Assisted reading can become class-wide with peer tutoring or partner reading and dyad reading Reading performance: Making easy books acceptable: How do we assess and monitor progress in reading comprehension? Following, processing, and understanding what is being communicated through the text being read Listen to students read and talk about what they are reading Ask implicit and explicit questions about their understanding of text Ask students to develop questions about what they read Confer with students before and after reading Examine written work sample that reflects what students are reading A student's oral retelling of a story is the most accurate way to detirmine if comprehension is taking place •Determine how much they know about the text and what they have learned Reinforces what the student is already fluent in with techniques such as reader's theater and buddy reading Students practice reading a selection until they are fluent and ready for performance In reader's theater student's perform a play or a book adapted to script by reading aloud to an audience Buddy reading consists of a student reading texts to younger students Reading easier level books to younger students Have students make tape recording of themselves reading easy books that sound good on tape recording Broaden the definition of acceptable reading t0 poems songs raps jump rope charms and cheers
Make simple nonfiction books available that contain new information of student interest Making difficult books accessible: Tape recorded books
Reading aloud Partner reading in which less able and more able readers are matched Preceding difficult books with easier books about same topic or genre Familiarizing the child with vocab and text structure in books that are easier to read Using books of the same series to increase student comfort level Comprehension is the single most important outcome of interest when determining RTI The maze test provides a means for determining whether students can identify the syntactically and semantically correct word that fits in a passage Previewing: Brainstorming
A pre-reading plan consisting of a three phase instructional assessment strategy built on... Reflections on initial association Reformation of knowledge Reading a small passage to get an idea about structure and vocabulary of the text Text Structure Stratigies: Text preview: Synopsis of a text, written in an organized framework that enhances student comprehension by bringing it to their real world experiences KWl
Assessing what I KNOW
Determining what I WANT to learn
Recalling what I LEARNED Piques student interest
Brief discussion of texts theme
Questions or directions that guide student reading Questioning Stratigies: major vehicle that teachers use to foster understanding and retention to check for comprehension Request reciprocal questioning
Question answer relationship strategy (QAR) Self questioning strategies Questioning the author Summarization Strategies: Story mapping Story retelling
Paraphrasing Reciprocal teaching – predicting, questioning, summarizing, clarifying P redict
E valuate Jo was the first to wake in the gray dawn of Christmas morning. No stockings hung at the fireplace, and for a moment she felt as much disappointed as she did long ago, when her little sock fell down because it was crammed so full of goodies. Then she remembered her mother's promise and, slipping her hand under her pillow, drew out a little crimson-covered book. She knew it very well, for it was that beautiful old story of the best life ever lived, and Jo felt that it was a true guidebook for any pilgrim going on a long journey. She woke Meg with a "Merry Christmas," and bade her see what was under her pillow. Directed reading think activity
DR-TA for teaching reading that stresses student abilities to read reflectively and use prediction and preview strategies to set their own purposes for reading
Literature based reading and whole language
Philosophy of reading and learning based on the assumption that students will learn to read by having multiple opprotunities to engage in listening talking about reading and writing about interesting and engaging literature Chunk reading
Help student improve their reading accuracy and rate while reading phrases, and dramatic reading Critiquing oral reading
Provide student opportunities to critique their oral reading Previewing
Help student activate prior knowledge and make predictions about what they are going to read Predict the plot
Provide student with practice in prediction event and plot in stories WH Game
To provide students with practice in answering who what when where why and how questions Expository text question cards
Teach students to indentify different types of expository text structure to ask comprehension questions appropriate to each text structure while reading text Fox sat in his room.
He was bored.
"I know", he said.
"I need a friend" Fox picked up his net and went to see his mom. "I'm going to catch a friend," he declared.
"You can't catch friends," Mom explained.
"You have to make friends."
So Fox put down his net and set off to make a friend. "What can I make a friend out of?" He thought.
He picked up some sticks, an apple, and some nuts and fixed them all together.
At last he had a brand new friend standing in front of him. In the small, small pond...
Wiggle, jiggle, tadpoles wriggle.
Waddle wade, geese parade. Lash, lunge, herons plunge
Splitter, splatter, minnows scatter Fox Makes Friends In the Small, Small Pond.
Think and search
Author and me
On my own. Students take role of teachers What is the author trying to tell you?
Why is the author telling you that?
Does the author say it clearly?
How could the author have said things more clearly?
What would you say instead?
Think about Predict
Investigate Answer questions Little Women