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AP Human Geography: Religion (Ch. 6)

HGAP: Rubenstein Text

Michael Tornetto

on 10 December 2018

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Transcript of AP Human Geography: Religion (Ch. 6)

HGAP Ch. 6: Religion
Key Issue 3: Why Do Religions Organize Space in Distinctive Patters?
Key Issue 2: Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions?
Key Issue 4: Why Do Territorial Conflicts Arise Among Religious Groups?
People care deeply about religion and draw from it their core values and beliefs, essential elements in defining culture
Understanding Religion helps us to better understand how people organize the physical, political, social landscape.
Religions spreads with migrants but is the cultural trait least likely to change, especially when compared to cultural elements such as language.
Attempting to Spread
Emphasizing Conversion
Globalizing / Evangelical
58% of Worlds Pop
Tied to an Ethnicity and/or Region
26% of World Pop

Large, Fundamental Division within a Religions
Legal and Administrative Unity (Unified Local Congregations)
Small, Splinter/ Break Away Group
2 Billion Adherents (Largest)
Widest Physical Distribution
Dominant in Europe, The Americas, Australia.
Some Majority Countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, and Asia
Roman Catholic (51%)
Southern and Eastern Europe
93% of Latin America
N. Eastern US and Quebec
Protestants (24%)
Northern Europe
United States (Especially the Midwest and South)
28% of US Population
Baptist Largest within US
Orthodox (11%)
Eastern and S. Eastern Europe (some in the M.E.)
Other (14%)
Coptic Church (Egypt)
Ethiopian Church
Armenian Church (Lebanon, Armenia, Azerbaijan)
Maronites (Lebanon)
Mormon (Latter-day Saints) - Utah (3% of US Pop)
Key Issue 1: Where Are Religions Distributed?
M.E., N. Africa, and Central/South Asia (Worlds 2nd Largest)
1/2 of all Muslims live in Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India
5 Pillars of Islam
83% of Muslims
16% (Majorities in Iran, Iraq, and Azerbaijan)
Europe - 5% of population (Colonial Legacy & Contemporary Migration/Refugee Crisis)
US 1% +/- of pop
Nation of Islam Separatists
(Elijah Muhammad vs. Malcolm X)

China and Southeast Asia
Hearth in India
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
Four Noble Truths
Eightfold Path (Moral Code)
Mahayana (56%)
China, Japan, Korea
Theravada (38%)
Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
Tibet and Mongolia
Buddhism can blend with others "eastern" religions.
Both and Buddhist and a Confucian and/or Daoist
Not Totally Foreign Concept for Americans
Concurrent Beliefs in Christianity, Greek Philosophy/Science, and ideals of the Dec. of Independence.

23 Million
Clustered in Punjab, India
Guru (teacher/enlightener)
Nanak (1469-1538)
Amrit (Baptism)
7 Million
Widely dispersed in Africa and Asia
Husayan Ali Nuri (1844)
Prophet and Messenger of God
Sent of overcome religious disunity
Establish a Universal Faith
Abolition of racial, class, and religious prejudices
3rd Largest Religion
97% in India
Worship Practices up to the Individual
No Central Authority or Holy Book
Vishnu, Shiva, etc.
Geographic Ties
Caste System
Based on the philosophy of Confucius
Moral Code of Daily Conduct or "Correct Behavior"
Rules for Life in China
Start 1/2 way in
Lao-Zi emphasized the mystical and magical "way" or "path"
The "way" or "path"
The Universe can not be comprehended it is not rational.
Emphasis on avoidance of daily activities and on introspection over public service
Persecuted in Communist China
Ethnic religion of Japan
Divine forces of nature (wind, sun, moon, rivers)
Over time deceased emperors become more important deities than natural forces
Divinity of Emperor
Post WWII Renunciation of Divinity
Prayer and Pilgrimages to shrines of deities
33% live in US, 33% live in Israel.
Urban (New York)
Israel (Post WWII Jewish State)
Christianity and Islam considered "Abrahamic" Religions
First Monotheistic Religion
"Chosen" People
Ten Commands
Native American
12% of Africa's Population
46% of Africa is Christian
40% Muslim
Ethnic Religions
Seasons and Favorable Conditions
Jewish reinterpretation of natural holidays in light of historical events, especially outside of the M.E. and its agricultural cycles.
Israel uses Lunar not Solar Calendar
Universalizing Religions
Islam - Lunar Calendar
Holidays at different seasons from generation to generation
Easter date (Gregorian vs. Julian Calendar)
Linked to Agricultural Cycle
Southern Europe - Harvest
N. Europe and N.America - Spring/New Life
Thanksgiving taken on "religious" harvest festival role
Christmas (Winter in N. America and N. Europe)
Southern Hemisphere?
Birth, Enlightenment, and Death
Sikhism - births and deaths of the ten gurus
Houses of Worship Activity (pg. 191)
bulleted criteria
mental sketch from paragraph
image sort
Abrahamic Religions
Pressure on the Land
City Space (Catacombs)
Farm land out of Production
Bathed in Ganges
Strain on Wood Supply
Exposure (Sky Burial)
Sea Burial
Toponyms (
Google Earth
Place name a clue to religion
Hierarchical Religions
Well-defined structure and organization of territory into local administrative units
wards (750)
stake (5,000)
Archbishops (Province - several dioceses)
Bishop (individual diocese)
Priests (local parishes - individual church)
Locally Autonomous Religions
Loose Cooperation and Shared Ideas
Political/Government Admin and/or Social Services
Somewhat hierarchical to extremely autonomous
Ethnic Religions
Judaism & Hinduism (maximum autonomy/independence)
Taliban: Economic Dev is incompatible with Religious Values
Anti-Globalization (Violently Opposed)
Literal "Fundamentalist" interpretation of the Qur'an
Rigid Caste System (1,000's of sub-castes)
Brahmans (Priests/Administrators)
Kshatriyas (Warriors)
Vaisyas (Merchants)
Shudras (Farmers/Artisans)
"Untouchables" - Legally abolished by Indian Government
Karl Marx - Religion is "the opium of the people".
USSR and Soviet Bloc
vs. Orthodox Christianity
vs. Catholic Christianity
vs. Islam
Vietnamese Communists and Cambodian Khmer Rouge
Persecution of Buddhism
Decay of Angkor Wat Temple Complex

Ulster Defense Force
Charles Martel - Battle of Tours (732)
Crusades to Reconquer the Holy Land (1099-1244)
Spanish Re-Conquista (1492)
Fall of Constantinople (1453)
Sunni vs. Shia:
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