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Jazz 3- MU1
Transcript of Jazz 3- MU1
Time period: Late 1950s
Typical instruments: Piano, saxophone, trumpet, double bass, drums Special things about Modal Jazz
1) Slow-moving harmonic rhythm, where single chords may last 4 to 16 or more measures.
2) Pedal points (sustained tone) and drones (sustained or repeated note throughout the piece)
3) Not much functional chord progressions
4) Lots of quartal harmonies or melodies Cool Jazz- Martin, Chlorophyl, Valerie, Tedmund Characteristics Development of free Jazz Background Free Jazz-
Joanna, Cindy, Edwin, Teresa Characteristics Relax and lay back mood - in contrast to bebop
Drummers usually play softer than other modern style
Dynamics usually stable
Emphasize on arrangement and composition
Meter - 3/4, 5/4, and 9/4 -There is specific limitations in free jazz MODAL JAZZ- Cherie, Wing, Michael, Dolphin -No fixed structure Developed by the 1950s
Found by Miles Davis
Became more similar to classical music
Cool Jazz is associated with a number of white musicians who relocated to California where they could get day gigs at movie studios - often modulate keys when they improvising Free Jazz Development
- Free Jazz(The new thing or energy music in 1960s): a collective improvisation at the beginning, then became the term for the entire movement.
-1950's and 60's by Albert Ayler, Ornette Coleman and John Coltrane.
- musician refused on performing according to structure and elements of ‘’traditional Jazz’’.
- improvisation and largely without a set rhythm or beat- A same song being played differently every time.
- music/melody developed on a theme
- To solve the racial problem more than commercial use.
-free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, break down what we called ''jazz''
http://forums.allaboutjazz.com/showthread.php?t=49746 Famous People - phrase in chromatic intervals and harmonies Albert Ayler -TEXTURE is more important than melody Kind of Blue - Miles Davis & Bill Evans Gerry Mulligan
"My Funny Valentine" American saxophonist and clarinetist
Become staff arranger for Gene Krupa's group in 1943 Chet Baker
"Time after time" Lyrical improvisor
Great imitated scat solo singer
In the mid 1950's, Downbeat magazine voted Baker the best trumpet player in the country over Miles Davis Guiding Questions
What is jazz? How should it be defined? Louis Armstrong reportedly said, “If you gotta ask, you’ll never know.” Wynton Marsalis has said that to be jazz, music must have elements of blues and swing. According to the singer Carmen McRae, “Blues is to jazz what yeast is to bread—without it, it’s flat.” And yet, several of the musical selections in this lesson don’t contain characteristics of blues tonality or swing rhythm. Are they jazz? How would you define jazz? Do you know it when you hear it?
Why did bebop develop in Harlem, even though many bebop innovators were from the South and Southwest? What was unique about Harlem at that time? What musical characteristics and social backgrounds did the musicians bring from other parts of the country?
Is everything justifiable if the end is good?
What are the qualities or characteristics of jazz that make it a unique form of self-expression? Bebop, Cool, Modal, Free jazz- MU1 Bebop -The decline in popularity of swing bands and the rise of
singers as pop stars
-Many jazz musicians in the mid-1940s retreated to smaller
groups of five or six instruments
-Easier to organize, were cheaper to book in clubs, and provided more freedom for individual musicians to express themselves
-Unlike the smooth, pulsing flow of swing, these new melodies were typically jagged and uneven, designed to catch listeners off guard.
- Swing offer a lighthearted escape from the hardships of the Depression
- Bebop as a reflection of the anxiety and uncertainty faced by
African Americans in the immediate postwar years
- employment discrimination and poor educational
opportunities to increased racial conflict as the country
struggled toward greater equality. Harlem - Capital of bebop, mostly young blacks who had migrated to New York from the South and Southwest, drawn by the allure of Harlem’s celebrated African-American arts scene.
-They were virtuosos on their instruments, and they saw themselves not as talent hired to make dance music, but as true artists driven by their own aesthetic vision. By refusing to play the traditional role of smiling entertainer, they became forerunners of the civil rights struggle of the 1960s. The principal creators of bebop,
alto saxophonist Charlie Parker and
trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. A quintessential example of bebop, this tune highlights the brilliant musical partnership between Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Few, if any, horn players have ever played together so well at such fast tempos.
Gillespie explored the far reaches of harmony (and the upper reaches of his horn) and, wisely, taught his fellow musicians how to join him. References
http://goo.gl/2izxp People are waiting on line for food. Charlie Parker, might start a solo by playing in the lower register of his horn and then leap upward without warning. He also surprised listeners by where he chose not to play, breaking phrases with a pause at the least expected moments. This music showcased the rhythmic velocity and melodic inventiveness of Parker’s playing. Bebop- staggered phrasing, in combination with the irregular accents, thumps, and bass drum “bombs” of bop drummers, made dancing difficult. - Cuban and Puerto Rican dance music that was pouring out of New York City ballrooms following the wave of Latino immigration that had begun around 1930.
- 1940s, the Cuban mambo swept the country, “Manteca” Dizzy Gillespie and His Orchestra 1947
-Dizzy loved Afro-Cuban music and combined it best with jazz when collaborating with the Cuban percussionist Chano Pozo with whom he co-wrote this song. Both understood that jazz and Afro-Cuban music shared musical roots. Pozo explained, “Dizzy no speak Spanish, me no speak English. Both speak African. ” Latin influence on Bebop How is this music different from Swing? Music background
By the 1950s, musicians began using a modal approach rather than the conventional chord changes. Musicians used modal scales for this type of Jazz music. In modal jazz, bass lines are mostly constructed in 4 or 8 bar phrases with an emphasis of the root or the 5th degree on beat one of such phrases. Reference
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cool_jazz Charles Mingus usually no harmony