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A2 Psychology - PSYA3 Gender lesson 1

Gender - Biological influences
by

Amanda Lane

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of A2 Psychology - PSYA3 Gender lesson 1

Biological influences on gender! A2 Psychology - Gender To understand the role of hormones and genes in gender development Lesson Objective: What are the differences between males and females? So what is gender? Gender refers to being either masculine or feminine in relation to your behaviour and traits. Gender is psychological and is determined by cultural aspects. Sex on the other hand is the biological differences that determine males and females and is influenced by genes and hormones. Genes and Gender development Chromosomes contain information passed down from parents in DNA that determine how we develop. Genes and Gender development Chromosome combinations will determine the levels of male and female hormones that the foetus is subjected to. Genes and Gender development Up until 6 weeks prior to conception both male and female embryos look the same. Both have gonadal ridges which will eventually develop into the sex organs. Humans have 23 pairs of Chromosomes, just one pair of these chromosomes determine sex. Male chromosomes are paired as XY Female Chromosomes are paired as XX Hormones effect the development of the sex organs and the brain. The Y chromosome will trigger the release of H-Y antigen which will cause the gonadal ridges to develop into testes. But things are not that simple! Androgens are hormones such as testosterone. In rare cases, the XY foetus does not respond to the effects of testosterone exposure in the womb. AIS - Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome So why do people FEEL like they are the opposite to their BIOLOGICAL sex?

Why do they opt for gender reassignment? Male & Female brains! Male and female brains are different in size, shape and function.

According to Geschwind & Galaburda (1987) these differences are caused by the levels of testosterone the developing brain is subjected to resulting in masculine or feminine brains. All joking aside..... T A E R O B O
E T G S T N W
R N E E A I E
I N U R E F R
N B U O E E E
B S E A E V E
I D H T S G N
Hidden in the grid below are eight, 7-letter words. Each word begins with the central R and you can move one letter in any direction to the next letter. All of the other letters are used exactly once each. What are the words?





Lesson Objective To analyse the evidence in the role of genes and hormones in gender development So we have looked at the role of genes and hormones in relation to gender development.... But what evidence is there to support this theory? Hoag 2008, identified that there are many differences between male and female brains - girls are better at empathising but less capable in terms of spacial awareness. This would explain why gender ambiguous patients 'feel' more of one gender than other. Animal studies have provided evidence to support the effects of testosterone on prenatal development Quadagno et al (1976) identified that female monkeys delibrately exposed to testosterone in the womb were more aggressive than other female monkeys There is however one very controversial study that was carried out by Dr John Money (1972). Money theorised that biological sex (nature) was NOT the over riding factor in gender determination, but rather socialisation (nurture) was the key factor. How are we socialised into a gender?
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