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Based on Cambridge book TKT CLIL

Mariela Valdez

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of TKT CLIL MODULE 1

The TKT CLIL Course
Module 1

LLI. Mariela Valdez Márquez

An additional module of the "Teaching Knowledge Test" developed by Cambridge ESOL.
Addressed for teachers who use curriculum content in their teaching

What is TKT CLIL?
What are the specifications and requirements of this test?

It consists of one module with 80 objective questions (matching, multiple choice and odd-one-out).

Candidates should have at least an intermediate level of English with experience in teaching terminology, teaching knowledge, CLIL terminology and subject vocabulary.

How can I be prepared for this test?

The full seminar consists of 4 modules:

1) Knowledge of CLIL and principles
2) Lesson Preparation using CLIL
3) CLIL Lesson Delivery
4) Assessment of CLIL

What is CLIL?
A brief explanation...

CLIL is an approach or method which integrates the teaching content from the curriculum with the teaching of a non-native language.

In a CLIL classroom, the subject, new language are taught together and it can involve many methodologies.
What are the benefits of CLIL?
Introduce new concepts!
Improve students production of the language, performance and confidence!
Develop thinking skills!
Encourage stronger links with cultural values
Principles of CLIL



Cognitive skills across the curriculum

Learning skills across the curriculum

Key Concepts - models of CLIL
... that may concern languages; intercultural knowledge, understanding and skills; preparation for internationalisation and improvement of education itself.
meaning-focused learning method
... The aim is learning subject matter together with learning a language.
(Van de Craen)
An "umbrella" term used to talk about
billingual education situations.
An evolving
educational approach
to teaching and learning where subjects are taught through the medium of a non-native language.
(TKT:CLIL Handbook)
Other definitions...
Learners have to produce subject language in both oral and written forms. We therefore need to encourage learners to participate in meaningful interaction in the classroom. CLIL aims to increase
(student talking time) and reduce
(teacher talking time). We should also encourage self-evaluation and peer and group feedback. When learners produce the target language while studying curricular subjects, they show that subject knowledge and language skills are integrated. "By using the language for learning content, communication becomes meaningful because language is a tool for communication, not an end in itself" (Pérez Vidal, 2009).
CLIL promotes cognitive or thinking skills which challenge learners. We need to develop learners' cognitive skills so they can study subjects from the curriculum. These skills include reasoning, creative thinking and evaluating. "Good CLIL practice is driven by cognition" (Mehisto, Marsh, Frigols, 2008). We also need to analyse thinking processes for their language demands and to teach learners the language they need to express their thoughts and ideas.
The curricular subjects taught in CLIL include art, citizenship, classics design and technology (DT), economics, environmental studies, geography, history, information and communication technology (ICT), literacy, mathematics, music, physical education (PE), philosophy, politics, religious studies (RE), science, social science and technology.
Some CLIL programmes develop cross-curricular links among different subjects. For example, learners might study the history, geography and art of a particular area. This often happens on primary schools. In all CLIL contexts, we need to analyse content for its language demands and to present content in an understandable way.
The role of culture, understanding ourselves and other cultures, is an important part of CLIL. "Culture is at the core of CLIL" (Coyle, 2007) Learners sometimes need to communicate in a non-native language with new arrivals who may have different home language as well as social and cultural backgrounds. Learners need knowledge of those who live in different regions or countries. CLIL gives us opportunities to introduce a wide range of cultural contexts. We want to develop learners who have positive attitudes and who become aware of the responsibilities of global as well as local citizenship. Inside the classroom, we should value different home languages. Beyond the classroom, we can make links with partnership schools and make use of the internet to communicate with learners across the world about, for example, local environmental projects.
Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Look at these tasks. Which of them do you consider are more demanding.
repeating greetings
making hypotheses
justifying opinions
matching cards with words
interpreting evidence
Follow up activity... Which are CLIL?
Team Work!!
1. Which model of CLIL program have you used?
2. How do you develop the 4 c´s of CLIL when teaching?
3. How would you explain what is CLIL to other teacher that doesn't know?
4.Share some ideas or activities you use that are CLIL

Imagine you are at a Geography class
Look at this map and think, What kind of language your learners require in order to interpret and share info and evidence shown on here?
Task 1
Choose the best option to complete each statement about CLIL
1 CLIL is
A) about learning a new language quickly.
B) a method for thinking in English.
C) an approach with many different methodologies.

2 Communication in CLIL aims to
A) develop skills to express ideas in curricular subjects.
B) increase the use of TTT across the curriculum.
C) encourage listening skills in cross.curricular work.
3 One of CLIL's aims is to
A) imrpove the L1.
B) increase learners' confidence in using grammar.
C) provide cognitive development for learners.
4 In the CLIL classroom, BICS helps learners
A) use ICT across the curriculum.
B) develop basic conversational language.
C) improve their thinking skills.
5 In the CLIL classroom, CALP helps learners
A) communicate in every day situations.
B) develop thinking skills for studying subjects.
C) do tasks such as copying and repeating new subject language.
6 Studying curricular subjects in CLIL helps learners
A) develop better pronunciation for all subjects.
B) improve their reading and writing skills during all lessons.
C) understand new subject knowledge and language together.
1 The new bridge won't be finished until next summer.

2 The data will be clearer if you use a spreadsheet.

3 There might be a weaker exchange rate in the future.

4 The conductor explained to the orchestra that the rhythm changed in the second part.

5 The habitat around the pond is slowly changing.

6 To find the perimeter of the rectangle, add the length of the four sides, don't multiply them.
A) reporting verb

B) modal verb of possibility

C) imperative

D) modal verb of obligation

E) present tense

F) passive

G) conditional
Task 3
Match these examples of learners' language with the purpose of the communication listed.
A) to hypothesise
B) to check information
C) to define
D) to describe location

Purpose of the communication
E) to contrast
F) to give an example
G) to evaluate work
1 You can see the function keys at the top of the keyboard.
2 There are somethings an employer can't do, such as employ children of our age.
3 I think I need to change the rhythm. It's too slow.
4 The sculptures are realistic but the paintings are abstract.
5 I know! a pentagon is a 2-D shape which has five sides.
6 We think the king would had fought the invaders because he wanted all the power.
Learner's language

Is a term for school and college courses that allow students to study a foreign language or apply pre-existing knowledge of a foreign language outside of traditional language-learning classrooms.
Task 2
For these questions match the examples of language across the curriculum with the language forms listed A-G.
Language Forms
Examples of Language
Role of language and knowledge needed
content-obligatory language
What is the role of language in CLIL
CLIL learners
understand and produce a large amount of subject-specific vocabulary.
CLIL teachers and learners need to know:
content-compatible language
subject-specific language
grammatical structures
functional language
for specific subjects
(Geography: map vocab
+ how to interpret map)
Required to understand the subject + communicate ideas
Everyday, less formal language.
Learners have usually learned this language in English lessons.
(map-reading exercise:
use basic verbs
"goes" and "travels" describing the route of a river. Conditionals for cause and effects.)
The language needed for a specific curriculum subject.
(PE: match, ball, coordination, footwork, ...)
have opportunities to
develop linguistics abilities
understanding subject
vocabulary and grammar are interdependent --> focus on them as
4 groups from a maths lesson, what is the difference between them?
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
sharp rise
dramatic fall
Group 4
Some are easier to understand
Learners need them all to be able to
answer question or follow instruction
sharp rise
dramatic fall
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
Group 4
content-obligatory /
content-compatible / general vocabulary
high and medium frequency words
collocations (how words are combined)
Teachers need grammatical structures to communicate subject knowledge.
Structure and meaning
Support learners by:
helping them to notice
problematic structures
providing examples
correcting use of relevant forms
--> Need to be aware of the forms learners will meet in the subject and know which ones may be problematic
Highlighting vocabulary used in CLIL subjects to help building a wide range of vocabulary.
You can aid the teaching language by...
Modeling sentences similar to those in the table so that students have examples of what they need to produce.
Correcting learners by recasting language IMMEDIATELY after the mistakes. Especially with subject-specific language.
Analyzing errors to identify learners' difficulties. Mistakes are often due to L1 transfers.
Team Work
Discuss and reflect the following statements written in CLIL articles:
1) CLIL allows learners to use language in more complex ways.

2) CLIL teachers correct content vocabulary and some pronunciation but don't usually correct grammatical errors.

3) All learners need specific language teaching at both the early stages and more advanced stages of CLIL programmes.

4) CLIL teachers need to plan fo the language which is used in their subject.

Task 5
Look at the classroom activities and the three possible learning skills develop listed. Choose the correct option.
1 Reading web pages to find out which paintings are in your nearest museum.
a) summarising information
b) locating information
c) checking information
2 Looking at signs about protecting the environment and then agreeing on a different design for a new sign to put near your school
a) observing others
b) reviewing other's work
c) cooperating with others
3 A speaker is going to talk about the lives of women 300 years ago. While she is talking, complete the sentences on your worksheet in your own words.
a) note taking
b) data handling
c) editing text
4 Writing statements related to the unit of work you have completed
a) processing knowledge
b) solving problems
c) investigating facts
5 Completing a questionnaire, then writing down the energy consumption of different household items
a) recording findings
b) recording opinions
c) recording experiments
6 Interviewing the employees of some local companies to find out about work experience.
a) planning an investigation
b) carrying out an investigation
c) reporting results of an investigation
How to develop communication skills
Interaction is part of learning
The role of communication skills
agreeing or disagreeing
Other examples of
communicative functions
Code switching
It is important to:
By encouraging learners to:
Meaningful communication
Communicative tasks
Need to develop communication skills for curricular subjects
Communication skills are important for expressing ideas both in writing and orally. It also helps learners to work well together.
To develop communicative competence (oracy), learners need communicative FUNCTIONS
--> purpose for speaking or writing
They need examples of these functions
asking questions
comparing and contrasting
to generalize
to express ideas
to instruct
to interpret data
to persuade
Use of L1 for communication =
for learning and teaching
part of sense making.
Use of L1 and target language by both teachers and learners for specific purposes --> code switching.
Teachers may chose to help learners understanding the curriculum content by using bilingual techniques.
Learners use L1 to justify a point, explain
to check understanding or to repeat
increase student talking time (STT) and
reduce teacher talking time (TTT).
We can use BRAINSTORMING at the start or the end of a topic of study. By writing down what we know about
it; what we've found out about it;
what we want to know.
Meaningful communication can be developed through
the use of
open questions.
--> with a range of
possible answers.
cooperate during task discussion
become response partners and give peer feedback
revisit content language and communicate it by discussing answers to questions in pairs.
share ideas with a partner before/after writing.
report back on research found on the Internet
prepare poster or Prezi presentation
take part in role play or debates
do end-of-lesson feedback
Before starting, teachers need to:
make the purpose and outcome of the communication clear to the learners.
identify ground rules and timing
assign group roles, for example:
Learner A organizes any material needed
Learner B notes any problems (content/language)
Learner C checks all are using the TL
Learner D reports back to class
After finishing, teachers should:
Communicative tasks
Give reflection time after the talk:
How did we do? How can we improve?
Be aware of progression
1. You can see the function key at the top of the keyboard.
D. To describe location
2. There are some things an employer can't do, such as employ children our age.
F. To give an example
3. I think I need to change the rhythm. It's too slow.
G. To evaluate work.
4. The sculptures are realistic but the paintings are abstract.
E. To contrast
5. I know! A pentagon is a 2-D shape that has five sides.
C. To define
6. We think the king would have fought the invaders because he wanted all the power.
A. To hypothesize
Code switching
1. The learner didn't know the answer in the TL but understood the question. The teacher consolidated the learning by translating the vocabulary from L1 orally, adding a visual on the board and showing learners the written form on the board.
Code switching
2. Here L1 was used to encourage learners to communicate. The learners understood the concept, then had the opportunity to use L1 to express it.
Code switching
3. To teach the learners the names of unfamiliar objects used in the science experiment, the teacher wrote them both in the L1 and in the target language.
For example
Conditions improved as a result of better harvests.
The rulers needed educated workers to rule their country.
cause and effect?
Follow up!
Coyle, Do, Philip Hood & David Marsh (2010). CLIL: content and language
integrated learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kay Bentley (2011). The TKT Course CLIL Module: Cambridge University Press.

Dale, Liz & Rosie Tanner (2012). CLIL Activities: A resource for subject and
language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

6 Evaluating
A) Finish the drawings of the quadrilateral shapes. Find a partner and suggest one improvement.
B) Look at your group's pie charts. Write down where you found the information and agree what you will write under the charts.
C) Compare the graph in your coursebook with the one you drew. What would you change to make the interpretation of your data clearer?
5 Sequencing
A) place these machines on the time-line to show when they were invented.
B) Agree which jobs in ancient Egyptian times are similar to jobs in our country today.
C) Look at the events leading up to the war and decide how they followed one another.
4 Classifying
A) Put the musical instruments into different sets. What features do they have in common?
B) Decide how these pieces of music could be grouped and explain the reasons for your grouping.
Read the text about jazz music, then complete the mind map by adding the main features of jazz.
3 Reasoning
A) Label the electrical components in the picture and then copy the circuit diagram.
B) Look at the animal word bank, then decide how you could group the animals in a Venn diagram.
C) Study the life cycle of a flowering plant and then explain to a partner how the seeds germinate.
2 Predicting
A) What could happen if the artist changes the perspective?
b) Scan the article and find when the building design will be completed.
C) With a partner, guess which objects won't be represented in the cave painting.
1 Comparing
A) Write down some facts about how fossil fuels are used.
B) Tell your partner three differences between coal and oil.
C) Look at the table about coal and oil and then list some similarities about how they are produced.
Look at the cognitive skills and the 3 activities listed A, B and C. Two of the activities develop the cognitive skill. One activity does NOT. Which activity does NOT develop the cognitive skill?
Task 4
What are they?
What type of activities use these cognitive skills?
What cognitive skills can you think of?
Creative thinking and synthesis
Other examples
Thinking skills.
Processes used by our brain when thinking and learning.
These skills develop from a very young age and progress with the years.
Information processing
Concrete thinking skills
Abstract thinking
"why" and "what if" questions
Key concepts
Learners need progressively challenging tasks so they can
knowledge is used to imagine, solve problems and to think of new ideas.
Enquiry skills
asking questions to plan how to do a research
Evaluation skills
comment on how good our work is
Learners are asked to think --> they need cognitive skills and language for thinking.
Cognitive skills can be divided into
lower order thinking skills
higher order thinking skills
remember information
order information
develop reasoning skills
develop enquiry and discussion
develop thinking skills.
Measure the radius of the circle
How can you calculate the diameter?
Learners benefit from language-rich classroom which helps them to think and learn well.
Posters related to the CLIL subject labelled with key content vocabulary and questions beside them.
Learners need WAIT TIME. Opportunities to stop, think and process new information.
Especially in the first years of CLIL.
This helps them give longer answers, add to what other learners have said and offer alternative ideas.
How to develop cognitive skills
Through tasks and challenges appropriate to the subjects.
Effective questioning is of key importance.
--> questions can be used
to help learners make associations and to think more deeply.
What kind of questions can we ask in the CLIL classroom?
Concrete thinking
(recalling facts)
What is a race?
When did the race start?
Why is this an abstract painting?
How would you paint this shapes to show action?
What links can we make between the writers' ideas?
Additional activities
Find a picture, poster or diagram for your CLIL programme. Write three or four questions to develop your learners' cognitive skills.
Look at a unit or handouts used at the beginning of your course or module. Read the activities for learners. Do they progress from developing LOTS to HOTS? Which cognitive skills do they develop?
Look at a unit or handouts used at the end of your course or module. Read the activities for learners. Are they more challenging than at the beginning of the course? If not, how could you adapt them to develop HOTS?
Remembering (names of fruits and veggies), identifying them in the picture.
Comparing, then identifying.
Dividing / classifying
Predicting / reasoning
Creative thinking / synthesis
What features of the landscape can you see?
What kind of climate does this place have?
Which sea is in the background?
Why do you think there are so many tall buildings there?
Is this like the place where you live? Why?
If you were a town planner, what would you change and why?
Why are they important?
How to identify them?

What are they?
Key concepts
All learners need to develop skills that a community believes to be important .
Learning process is complex.
Students need time and encouragement to develop learning skills so that they are able to apply to further contexts.
Community based
Active learning
exploring environment
interacting with people
In schools, students develop more than knowledge of several subjects.
positive attitudes
learning skills
learning strategies
Learning skills involve learning how to learn and developing learners' autonomy.
CLIL aims at increasing STT and their autonomy.
Focus on thinking skills so that they learn how to learn efficiently.
Thinking skills: in LOTS (remembering, ordering, ...) and HOTS (predicting, hypothesizing, ...)
Learning Skills
Teachers need to coordinate themselves. If a science teacher takes the time to teach how to use a spreadsheet on the computer ...
Autonomous learning --> enquiry approach.
--> learning skills developed focus on understanding and achieving 'correct' concepts.
Art: encourage learners' creativity and expression.
--> learning skills focus on how they achieve the final product.
ex: how to calculate circumference. Using knowledge
to solve a problem.
ex: painting a still life. Observation
skills and using senses.
In a global one, these include fast technological communication and data handling.
Using and interpreting information.
Teacher language
Which learning skills do they aim to promote?
1. Look at the pie charts and then, in the table opposite, write down the percentages of different groups of people who voted.
2. Look at the contents section at the start of the book and find the chapters you need to read about fractions.
3. Agree how you are going to work out the best way to record the results of the school athletics competitions.
4. Look at the report you wrote for homework and decide where you could add some more examples of different currencies to justify your argument.
Do you agree? Why or why not?
1. If I give learners time to give their opinions, give reasons and evaluate each others' work, then I can understand their learning needs better.
2. Learning cannot be done
the student; it has to be done
the student.
3. All learning skills need to be discussed and develop in class.
4. Learning by doing and collaborating is an important part of a CLIL approach.
5. Vygotsky said that learning occurs twice: first as a social interaction and then as an internalisation.
Maths: subject content is objective.
Need of different learning skills
Subjects are different
follow up...
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