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Roman Republic

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Amy Bui

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Roman Republic

Roman Republic
(509-31 BC) Rise of the Republic (509-343 BC) The Early Struggle The Last Tarquin
stories of Patriotism Brutus and Collatinus Treachery of His Sons Etruscans Sylvanus Horatius Cocles Latins Battle of Lake Regillus Castor and Pollux New Republican Government praetors
rex sacrorum
quaestors
dicator
master of horse
Senate
popular assembly
tribune of the people
concilium plebis
aediles
curule aedile conscripti
&
patresconscripti comitia curiata
&
comitia centuriata Rights
Wars Valerius First Charter of Roman Liberty Plebians vs. Patricians vote only in the comitia centuriata
no office
despotic aristocrats
distress
destruction in the wars
debt
unequal division of public land (ager publicus) patrician controlled government
aristocratic Republic, not democratic First Secession of the Plebs mons Sacer 494 BC tribune of the People

concilium plebis Spurius Cassius Agrarian Laws Treaties Strengthening
Rome death of a great patriot VOLSCIANS
AEQUIANS
ETRUSCANS Coriolanus Cincinnatus Fabii Equality in the Law Gaius Terentilius Harsa and the written law
Decemvirs
XII Tables 450 BC
Tyranny of the 2nd Decemvirs Second Secession of the Plebs

End of the Decenvirs

consuls Valerius and Horatius; their laws
Second Charter of Roman Liberty (448 BC)

Right of Intermarriage
lex Canuleia 445 BC Political Rights military tribunes
censors (443 BC)
new Quaestors (421 BC) Spurius Maelius 405-396 BC Rome captured Veii, strongest city in Etrusia
390 Etruscans debilitated because of the Gauls north of them.
Gauls charges south, and entered and burnt Rome down. Only the Capitol remained.
Camillus ended the Gallic invasion.
The city rebuilt.
CONQUEST!!! Equal Orders Marcus Manilus
C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius
Licinian Laws (3rd Roman Charter of Liberty 367 BC)
judicial powers of consuls given to praetors
creation of patrician aediles (curule aediles) u
n
i
o
n

p
o
p
u
l
i
i Licinian Laws
(Third Roman Charter of Liberty)
367 BC

extension on debt paymens.

public lands open to all equally. Limit holdings: 300 acres

no military tribunes by the time of the Licinian Laws, few offices were held soley by patricians:

•dictatorship, the censorship, the praetorship, and the curule aedileship

-eventually opens to plebs After settling the conflict over civil rights of the orders in Rome, the republic was prepared to extend its rule over the world. citizens' Triumph Middle of the Republic (343-264 BC) Rome Key Rome Allies Province Battles
Campaigns Samnite War Campania (343-341 BC) Great Latin Wars (340-338 BC) Roman Control of Central Italy fight for equality and independence Fighting the allies with the enemies defeat at MT Vesuvius Pacification Full citizenship

Partial citizenship

Latin colonies

Military Occupation <<326-304 BC>>
Battle for central Italy

Second Samnite War

Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus Conquest of Southern Italy Tarentum, Greece

King Pyrrhus of Epirus Supreme control of Italy ager Romanus Colonies got full citizenship Subject Territories

no share in politics
CanNot: declare war, make peace, alliance, coin money
Not a part of the sovereign body of the Roman people Latin colonies

veterans and poor
no citizenship
spread influence of Rome. Roman municipia
private (not public) rights
Sel-government, citizenship
(a municipal system) Allies
paid no dues
self-government
military aid Where there is military, there is strength in government

Conquest of the Mediterranean Scicily The First Punic War with Carthage
(264-218 BC) Appius Claudius victory over Carthage naval war Columna Rostrata Regulus' campaign in Africa 256BC Victory at the Aegates Islands
241 BC First Roman Province Subject People
Confiscated lands
Tributes
governed by Roman praetor
Got Corsica and Sardinia ... and more conquests Conquests
(267-133 BC) Wars First Punic War 264-241 BC 215-06 BC Second Punic War First Macedonian War 218-201 BC Second Macedonian War 200-197 BC War with Antiochus of Syria 192-189 BC Third Macedonia War 171-168 BC
Third Punic War 149-46 BC Conquest in the West Second Punic War with Carthage for supremacy of Spain. Hamilcar Barca
Hasdrubal
Hannibal Quintus Fabius and the Carthaginian Senate
"War or Peace?"
"Either."
"War!" Sempronius --> Africa
P. Cornelius Scipio --> Spain Lost Allies Apulians, Lucanians, Samnites, Bruttians.
Capua Loyalties Tarentum, Syracuse. Greeks and Latins Spain lost to Roman Power Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus brought Spain under Roman power.
Brought victory in Africa.
Carthage gave up Spain and islands Carthage had to pay fifty years of reparations.
They can’t wage any war w/o consent of Rome.
Carthage made a dependent state
Syracuse added to province of sicily Conquest in the East Kingdoms Divided Egypt (Ptolemies)
Macedonia
Syria Asia (Seleucidae) 1st & 2nd Macedonian Wars Hannibal
&
Macedonia Romans
&
Aetolians Aetolians
&
Macedonia Roman Liberation of Greece 196BC War w/Antiochus III of Syria peace at the Battle of Magnesia conflict with the Aetolians death of Hannibal king Perseus
&
3rd Macedonian War Macedonia divided by 4 Macedonia becomes a Province "King" Phillip revolt in Greece destruction of Corinth 146 BC 3rd Punic War wealth of Carthage "Carthage must be destroyed" Numidian allies heroics, siege and destruction of Carthage war w.
Celtiberians
&
Lusitanians Insurrection of Sicilian Slaves Rome: Conqueror of the World Government Rome inherits Asia King Attalus III 133 BC from conquering to governing power
wealth
oppression
citizens vs. non citizens
Senate
Assemblies the Provinces 1) sicily in 1st Punic War

2) Sardinia and Corsica (1st~2nd Punic War)

3) Hither Spain 2nd Punic War

4)Farther Spain 2nd Punic

5) Illyricum after 3rd Macedonian War

6) Macedonia, after the destruction of Corinth

7) Africa after 3rd Punic War

8) Asia, bequeath by last king of Pergamum, Attalus III Provincial Governors Province Towns propraetors&proconsuls civitates foederatae immunesstipendiariaelocal towns Taxes foreign influence of the Greeks Religion Philosophy Literature Art Fall
of the Republic 133-31 BC Gracchi Brothers Marius and Sulla Pompey
&
Caesar Antony and Octavius Start of Civil Stife in Rome Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus Gaius Gracchus dying reforms
falling to corrupt government Aristocratic Class Pauper Class senatorial order
equestrian order artisans
destitute
poor farmers Roman Subjects Latin colonists
Italian Allies
Provincials
house slaves
field slaves Down fall of government No rights for Roman subjects
Lack of Patriotism
Increase of ambition and Avarice
death of Licinian Laws
use of Slaves Cornelia's Jewels
Truth
Justice
Rome Agrarian laws and the deposed M. Octavius A bigger rift between the optimates and populares corn law
weakening the senate
failure to franchise the Latins Lex Thoria Leader of the army in Africa and Popular Party Leader “in the midst of arms, the laws are silent.” subordinate of Marius Rose to power after quelling a civil revolt with the Italians Civil War
of
Marius and Sulla Marius' Jealousy Sulpician Laws
88 BC attempt to depose senate and Sulla Marius exiled
Sulla's success in the East Massacre in Rome revolt of the popular party violence and politics Sulla: supreme ruler in Rome Aristocrats and Senate rise back to power Changes to magistrates and legal system Sulla abdicated power Another Fall of Reform Rome's first imperator Pompey's rise to prominence re-division of Power Conflict between Pompey and Caesar Lepidus' Revolt
Sertorian War
Spartacus and the Slave Insurrection overthrow or the sullan constitution
tribunes given back control
jurors
censors lex Gabinia 61 BC
lex Manilia 66 BC Gaius Julius Caesar Marcus Porcius Cato
Marcus Tullius Cicero First Triumvirate military tribune, quaestor, aedile, pontifex maximus, and praetor Cicero gets banished
Caesar's conquest of Gaul Caesar's campaign in Spain, Greece, Egypt, Asia, and Africa invasion and dictatorship of Italy democratic monarchy
work for the idle
control of provincial governors
March 15, 44 BC friend and consul grandnephew and adopted son Second Triumvirate Marcus Antonius seized Caesar's will sieges of the "liberators" Gaius Julius Caesar Octavius natural politician popularity with the populace Marcus Antonius: public enemy rule of Octavius defeat of the last liberators: Battle of Philippi despotism of the 2nd deposing the senate and equites Octavius in the West; Antony in the East loss of "Eastern king" and "Rome's queen" in the Battle of Actium What the Republic left: conflict between the people and senate Rome government neither for the people nor by the people demise of history's great men: Gracchi, Marius, Sulla, Cato, Cicero, and Julius Caesar extended citizenship improved private rights advancement in architecture, art, literature, and law decay or religion and morals
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