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Academic Vocabulary & the 21st Century Classroom

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Jennifer O'Connor

on 11 August 2014

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Transcript of Academic Vocabulary & the 21st Century Classroom

Presented By:
Jennifer O'Connor

Objectives...

Academic vocabulary includes the words that are
critical to understanding concepts taught in school.
Academic vocabulary focuses on specialized words, as opposed to the high- frequency words that students learn through reading and speaking. Learning academic vocabulary is not just for preparation for college.
Academic vocabulary can include school- related words that form the language of learning
that children encounter when they start school in kindergarten all the way through advanced placement courses they may take in high school
Some Common Core Academic Vocabulary Words...
Evaulate
Critical Vocabulary
The Language of Learning; Tier 2 Vocabulary and the Common Core

joconnor@orland135.org
Academic Vocabulary




The Language of Learning
Synthesize
Cite
Explicit
Implicit
Technical Text
Evidence
Analyze
Infer
Summarize
Compare
Contrast
Similarities
How Do We Plan for Academic Vocbulary Instruction?
Establish the three tiers of vocabulary
Instructional implications for tier 2 and tier 3 words
Question....
How do you determine which vocabulary to teach in your classroom??????
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier 1 Words
Tier 2 Words
&
Tier 3 Words
These are the words of everyday speech
These words are learned through everyday language although at different rates for different children
Examples:
look, they, back, map, etc
Spoken language high frequency words
"Meaty" Words
General academic words
Used across a variety of subjects
More prevalent in written words NOT spoken words
Found in a variety of texts
Typically used but NOT typically EXPLICITLY taught
Examples:
compare and contrast, analyze, determine, traits,
determine, explain, synthesize

Domain and subject specific
Taught at particular times of the year when teaching a specific topic
Generally heavily scaffolded and supported by text (heavy content)
Majority of instructional time spent on tier level 3 words
Examples:
legislature, metamorphosis, photosynthesis, geometric
htt://www.readingrockets.org/blog/55272/?theme=print
Knowing the difference between these tiers allows us to make
important instructional choices about what we teach and how we teach it...

The Age of Common Core...
Tier 2 Words are the backbone

to teaching and learning the Common Core State Standards & the tasks they ask of students.
We are asking kids to read increasingly complex texts...
...complete increasingly complex
tasks.
WHY???
Tier 2 Words Are the Language of Learning...
These are the words that
students MUST deeply understand
to accomplish the tasks we are asking them to complete across content areas.
When determining which Tier 2 words to target for instruction think about the
critical verbs and cognitive verbs that correlate to the higher leveled questions and tasks that you are asking your students to complete!
A Backbone Supports the
Entire Nervous System...

tier 2 Words Supports the
Common Core.

&
If Common Core is the mountain then
the tier 2 academic vocabulary are the
tools to climb the mountain.
htt://www.readingrockets.org/blog/55272/?theme=print
Critical & Cognitive Verbs of the Common Core
Where Do We Find These Words????
Researchers estimate that 85% of achievement test scores are based on the vocabulary of the standards.

Students from poverty, ELL students, and other at-risk students are particularly in need of of learning these words in ways that meet their specific learning needs.
http://www.marileesprenger.com/the-critical-words.html
They are the high frequency words of the Common Core and the words present in the exemplars provided in Appendix B
Question.....
Do our students understand the
language of learning

and the tasks that accompany this language?
Will they even be able to understand what the questions on PARCC are asking them to do?
These words are about
process AND NOT content!
When asked to
synthesize
texts on the PARCC the content is irrelevant...
The RIGOR is not the content, but the process of
synthesizing!
Honeybees
Recycling
Oceans
Weather
Aviation
Jobs
Homelessness
Bicyclists
Immigration
Technology
Synthesizing is a tier 2 Common Core Academic Word & a critical verb.
To do so requires a deep understanding of what it means to synthesize across texts and content areas.
Students must be able to apply this word across content areas.
The Language of Learning; Tier 2 Vocabulary and the Common Core
Critical Vocabulary:
Whose heard of the three tiers of vocabulary?
Common Known Words
Cross Curricular High Frequency Words
Low Frequency / Content Specific
The Critical Vocabulary Words are the words that are
action verbs and nouns that allow students to complete

rigorous tasks across content areas.
Springer's Tier 2 Critical Verbs

http://www.marileesprenger.com/the-common-core-and-vocabulary.html
These critical and cognitive verbs are the crucial vocabulary of the CCSS (they are Tier 2 words!)
Let's take a closer look at these words ....
Analyze
Does anyone know what exactly analyze means?
Synthesize
How about this one????
How many students will not even be able to understand what they are being asked to do to accomplish this task???
After reading the article, poem and short story;
analyze
the three texts that give information about honeybees. Please
Compare
and
explain
how the texts convey facts differently about honeybees.
An example of a question on PARCC
What are some obstacles our students might have with this task ?
The task being asked here are requiring students to deeply understand tier 2 words...
We must teach vocabulary and text strategies to tackle tier 3 words

and systematically teach tier 2 words in our classroom.
Planning for Effective Vocabulary Instructiion
"Tier 2 words are important for students to master and understand deeply. Why? Because academic words such as
justify, expand,

maximum
, and
barren
are found in many content area texts such as social studies, Science, Mathematics, English, and History texts. Understanding these terms greatly increases comprehension of academic texts."
http://www.learningunlimitedllc.com/2013/05/tiered-vocabulary/
Important Information....
Tier 3 words are easy to find per grade level because they are content specific...
Fourth grade tier 3 vocabulary word: photosynthesis
What if we placed an instructional emphasis on the action verbs and nouns of the tier 2 academic vocabulary words?
These words are
tangible links
to the
tasks

that students will be asked to complete on benchmark and performance based assessments.
Marilee Springer has
created a list of the critical verbs and nouns from the Common Core Academic Vocabulary lists.
"Teaching the vocabulary of the CCSS is urgently needed to assist students in understanding what is expected of them as they tackle complex texts, learn to read more closely, add to their vocabularies,
improve speaking and listening skills, and become well-rounded learners and members of society."
"There is a large number of critical words our students must master to be successful with the standards. The definitions of the word critical tell us the story. As we head into the regular use of the Common Core State Standards, it is essential that our students master these words. It will be absolutely necessary for them to automatically know the definitions without utilizing precious working memory."
http://www.marileesprenger.com/the-common-core-and-vocabulary.html
Handout
These critical verbs and nouns are not content specific...
These words build capacity...
...acoss contents!
Tier 3 words are heavily scaffolded by text
The key to instruction with tier 3 words is to teach students how to strategically use the text to help them solve unknown words!
Which subjects rely heavily on Tier 3 Vocabulary?
Which subjects rely more on the Tier 2 Critical Verbs?
Important content vocabulary! This vocabulary is heavily scaffolded by academic texts such as math books and science books
How do we teach this vocabulary?
tests/multiple choice
memorization
Can we align tier 2 words (
process
) to
content
areas, too?
content area word walls
How about applying critical tier 2 verbs & skills across domains?
cite
explain
conclude
refer
synthesize
evaluate
determine
analyze
Tier 2 critical vocab
Content area vocabulary is crucial...

aligning content area tier 3 vocab with tier 2 critical verb vocab is explicit, and purpose driven teaching!
Tier 3 Vocabulary
Can we say that tier 2 words are essential but are non-domain specific? (so they cross all domains!)
What are the best ways to tackle tier 2 and tier 3 words in our classroom?
It is important to acknowledge that tier 3 words are content/text specific and the critical words of tier 2 are mostly process specific.
Now What?
Please read one teacher/researcher's account of vocabulary instruction and learning in her classroom and school.
Ask yourself as you read if you can relate to this teacher's observations and experiences.
What do you notice about these words?
Tier 3 Words
Specific to a particular content
Content area teachers teach these vocabulary words everyday in their classrooms
Heavily scaffolded by text. These words are explicit.
Tier 2 Words
Content Non-specific
Critical to content mastery & understanding
Not scaffolded by text
Who is responsible for teaching these words?
Critical to mastering the Common Core
Critical to completing Common Core aligned assessments and tasks
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCgQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.isbe.net%2Fcommon_core%2Fpls%2Flevel2%2Fppt%2Fvocab-instruction.pptx&ei=yI3aU5i2J4OZyASp9ICYBw&usg=AFQjCNG0y66yuFfkrZ0yqWfVG5djHtRH7w&sig2=OeaWwjjAIGqmITeIMWDA3A&bvm=bv.72185853,d.aWw
Straight forward definitions
Tier 2 words should be a nautral focus of language arts instruction as we teach kids to read increasingly complex texts and complete complex tasks. Each unit should be aligned with tier 2 words.
We should be aligning our skill based instruction with the vocabulary that defines the processes we are asking our students to accomplish.
For example:
A unit teaching students how to cite evidence would explicitly teach the words...
cite, evidence, paraphrase, quote, details, explicit, source
LA
Content
Areas
For content area teach
tier 3 words are specific to
the curriculum.
When teaching content areas teachers should attach a tier 2
word (or more) specific to that content area.
For Example:
Teaching students about photosynthesis
Examples of tier 2 words that might be explicitly aligned with this unit...
compare, comparisons, conclude, infer,

explain
Possibilities are endless
Let's Practice Together
handout
The instructional shift that makes sense in the classroom is to
systematically
teach tier 2 words and to teach strategic vocabulary STRATEGIES to solve tier 3 words when encountered in text
Part 5
Common Core Academic Vocabulary
Historical Instruction:
(tier 2 words)
(tier 3 word)
Shift Happens
How Our Brains Work....
This video clarifies for me that we need to explicitly teach tier 2 words and teach them with concrete visuals....especially since these words are not content specific for individuals.
Create a frame of reference for these words that students will automatically associate them with.
Create Explicit Charts and Use Marzanno Mapping Strategies
I ADORE this book
Explicit examples of charts that teach tier 2 vocabulary
(makes the intangible tangible)
Introduce and teach tier 2 cognitive verbs
that are explicitly aligned to
grade level standards and expectations
Teach Students the Tiers of Academic Vocabulary
Tier 1
Words we use in everyday conversation constantly!
Tier 2
Found across content areas
Tier 3
Found in specific content areas
Take a few minutes and create an anchor chart explaining the tiers of vocab and where we find them in various texts
Consistently and often found in all types of texts & print.
Definitions not usually explained in the text
Found often in task oriented questions on assessments
Heavily supported by text: Often definitions found within the text or in glossaries and indexes
Meanings are important to understanding the content of a subject area.
Anchor Charts
Make them with the class
Should be accessible to the class
Should be referred to often by teacher and students
Example Tiered Vocab
Anchor Chart
3 Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier 1:
Words we say all the time
Found all over texts
We know what these words mean
Examples: house, car, farm, the, family
Tier 2:
Words we do not find in text very often
Words that do not have definitions in the text
Words we are not very familiar with but are important!
Examples: explain, cite, evidence,
Tier 3:
Subject specific (math, science)
Definitions are usually in the text or can be found in glossaries, indexes
Examples: experiment, angle, array
Made with the class
This type of chart would be kept up all year
Ask students to refer to the chart when classifying a word
handout
What does Tier 2 and Tier 3 Vocabulary Instruction and Assessment Look Like in the Classroom?
Tier 3
Tier 2
Based On the Works of ...

Isabel Beck and her work with tiered vocabulary
Shift Happens....
handout

handout
handout
handout
handout
Repeated Exposure
http://ontheweb.rozlinder.com/i-have-to-explain-the-text/
Example of an anchor chart for tier 2 words explain and explanation
Tier 2 Strategies
Pracitce
Often a process and not a content!

Part 2

Teaching Tier 2 & 3 Across Content Areas
How do we classify the vocab?
How can we categorize the Academic Words of the Common Core?
Where are these words and how do we categorize them?
Planning for Effective Instruction
Now what?
Using the tier 2 word rubric, let's go through this list and highlight
all the tier 2 words that are critical and cognitive verbs

that students will need to comprehend to tackle complex tasks and complex texts.
What makes a word a tier 2 critical/cognitive verb?
Content Specific
Academic Words
General Academic Words that are not content specific but critical for CCSS text and task mastery?
Category 1
(tier 2)
Category 2
(tier 3)
2 Categories
Refer to the sheet that lists the CCSS academic vocabulary for each grade level for ELA.
Instructional Implications for tier 2 and tier 3 words
I've always wondered HOW teachers determine which words are going to be difficult for students in a text. Yes, we can rely on how often we think our students have encountered a word or if a word is content specific BUT...
All of our kids have different background ecperiences and knowledge!!!
A word that might be difficult for one child, might not be difficult for another!
Tier 3 Word Instruction For Students
Explict & Strategic Vocabulary Instruction
Tier 3 Words
These are the
unkown
words that kids encounter when reading....
for enjoyment

for content (subjects)
for completing research

Effective Vocabulary Strategies to Tackle Unkown Words in Text...
Self-Monitoring
What do I do when I read a word I don't understand?
Re-reading
Is this word important to the overall comprehension of the text?
Dictionary
Technology
Context Clues
Part 3
Let's look once again at the ELA CCSS academic vocabulary list.
highlight which words are tier 3 for ELA
Most tier 3 words are language specific
adverb
complex sentence
pronouns
abstract nouns
affix
conjunction
prepositional phrase
apostrophe
prepositions
complete and compound sentnece
Part 4
Use correct language when introducing a word "this is a tier 2 word..."
Students should understand what tier 1, 2 and 3 vocabulary words are and where they can be found in texts.
Constantly ask students to classify words as you teach them... give students ownership of these words and a sense of where they will encounter them.
Create a Universal Language
When you know exaclty what catagory the vocabulary word is AND why it is important to teach it....
then so will your students!
Create a deep sense of purpose with your instruction
Purpose Driven Instruction
Tier 3 instruction
Strategy: Word Mapping
Tier 2 Strategy: Anchor Charts
Weekly "Mapping" Schedule for Tier 2 Words
I align each weekly language arts skills with 3-4 tier 2 words.
Students "map" a word a day using anchor charts for scaffolded support.
Step 1 : introduce the word and set the purpose (anchor chart)
Step 2 : Model how to "map" the word
Step 3: Students map the word during daily 5 using the anchor chart for support
Step 4: Quickly review the completed "maps" with students each day
Step 5: Assess
countless other reasons
Teaching Text Features
Using bold and italicized or colored print
Captions
Graphics
Glossaries/indexes
Contextual definitions
Sidebars
Headings
Sub-Headings
Tier 3 Instruction
Students understand how different texts "work" and how text features can support their reading.
Using Context Clues
Please Refer to the CCSS in your binders
Let's look at a standard and align some tier 2 Academic Vocabulary that can be taught with the standard
RL.4.1
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences.
Tier 2 Words:
Tier 3 Words:
Which vocabulary strategy & words...
...will you use to teach the CCSS this year?
How will you know
if they know the words and the strategy?
Tier 3 words are so often temporary to what the student is learning... strategies on how to solve unknown words are so MUCH more effective than teaching each individual word!
Strategy Should be Specific to the task
memorization (content specific)
previewing specific words (teacher directed)
morphology (teaching prefixes & suffixes)
transition words (writing)
teachin text features to enhance word attack skiils
Countless Strategies.....
just know your PURPOSE!
Critical to Understanding Curricular Content
Often, heavily supported in text
Temporary
Non-content specific
Cross-curricular
Often, process specific (task)
Marzanno
Please refer to your handout #
This process can be used for both tier 2 and tier 3 words
The key is determining the right words to teach with this in-depth process
Not all tier 2 words are critical action verbs and nouns. Some tier 2 words are general words that are critical to understanding a specific text.
These are words that must be understood to comprehend the text.
These types of words would involve specifc vocabulary strategies such as previewing, context clues and solving unkown words and prolific exposure to varied texts.
All subjects rely on the Tier 2 Critical Verbs!
I truly believe that systematically teaching the critical and cognitive verbs of the CCSS Tier 2 Academic Vocabluary is the key to unlocking the doors to Common Core and performance based assessments
Text Complexity
Tier 2 Critical & Cognitive Verbs
The verbs that are process specif such as explain, analyze, detail, conclude.
The words that are task specific.
Now that we know the critical & cognitive verbs of tier 2 let's examine how we can teach these important words...
These critical verbs can easily and readily be applied across content areas, too!
The three tiers of vocabulary of the CCSS is an in-depth topic.
This presentation is designed to reflect upon one aspect of the CCSS Academic Vocabulary...
...the critical and cognitive verbs of tier 2 and how teachers can target these words for explicit instruction.
Part 1
The Three Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier 2 Words Require Purposeful and Explicit Vocabulary Instruction....
"Here is the plan: process the critical words in enough different ways to get them stored in the brain in multiple places. The result of this is easier access to the definition. Continue to rehearse the processing in enough formats over time and the words become as automatic as who, what, why, how, and where! I use jingles for every word, add movement, 2D and 3D graphic organizers, use mind mapping, concept mapping, and vocabulary word maps. All of these and more provide many opportunities for differentiation and long-term memories."
-Marilee Springer
The Truth Is... Knowledge is Power
Knowing the power and importance of the tier 2 crtical verbs requires us as professionals to reflect on how we teach these words.


They are important. They are critical.


Is the importance of these words reflected in our practice?
These words can be taught....are we teaching them with sufficent clarity and explicitness?
Marilee Springer and her work on the critical vocabulary of the CCSS
The Standards:
This is my my experience coupled with the rational behind why I chose to teach my CCSS vocabulary the way I do in the classroom
There are many effective ways to teach CCSS vocabulary.... this is the way I choose to do it!
"Good pedagogy is about guiding students to learning. It's about posing challenges, asking the right questions, and presenting relevant problems for learners to explore, answer and solve. True pedagogy is where educators transport their students to a place where they will be amazed by the wonders of the world they live within."
http://steve-wheeler.blogspot.com/2013/11/the-meaning-of-pedagogy.html
Pedagogy
ped·a·go·gy
ˈpedəˌgäjē,-ˌgägē
noun
The method and practice of teaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept.
Paradigm
par·a·digm
noun
: a model or pattern for something that may be copied

: a theory or a group of ideas about how something should be done, made, or thought about
https://www.engageny.org/resource/common-core-shifts
There are major paradigm and pedagogical shifts presently occurring in education...
http://www.teachingthecore.com/common-core-text-complexity-triangle/
The most important question to ask yourself is.......
What do YOU believe about teaching and learning?
The Shifts Are Real
Let's take a closer look at the shifts
There are two shifts that support my pedagogy about teaching and learning...how about you?
Process VS. Content
Reading IS NOT content specific it is a process..
.
...teaching reading is teaching about key processes that students need to comprehend text.
The Vocabulary of Written Language
"Reading educators have long appreciated that there is a very strong relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehen- sion. But what exactly is it about the wording of texts that underlies this relation? Part of the answer is that written texts draw upon many more words than normally arise in oral language situations."
-Advancing Our Students’ Language and Literacy
By Marilyn Jager Adams
Developing Students’ Vocabulary:
Examining the Options

"So, what is the best way to help students master the many, many words they must know to understand advanced texts? In broad terms, there appear to be only two options:
(1) to endeavor to teach students the words they will need to know, and (2) to expect students to learn new words through reading.
Is direct vocabulary instruction worthwhile? Based on a highly regarded meta-analysis, the answer seems to be a resounding “yes.”"

Understanding the Reading Process...
.

"Good readers understand the processes involved in reading and consciously control them. This awareness and control of the reading processes is called metacognition, which means "knowing about knowing." Some students don't know when they don't know. They continue to read even though they are not comprehending. Poor readers tolerate such confusion because they either don't realize that it exists or don't know what to do about it. Poor readers focus on facts, whereas good readers try to assimilate details into a larger cognitive pattern."
Adapted for Breaking Through to College Reading, Brenda Smith.

Predict Synthesize

Visualize Recognize Text Structure

Relate/Draw Comparisons

Self-Monitor/Check for Understanding

Correct Gaps in Understanding
Connect
Apply Prior Knowledge/Schema
Can we as teachers teach both content and process??
This is what the CCSS is asking of teachers...
Teach the content... (has the content really changed?)
... just increase the rigor by completing more complex processes and tasks with the content...
....bump up the reading level of text difficulty for students (TEACH them how to read more complex text!)...
Today we are going to examine the critical academic vocabulary of the CCSS & how teaching and learning this vocabulary can significantly increase student success with both complex texts and tasks!
Purpose
How do we choose the voacb?
How can we choose words more deliberatly and with clear purpose?
Make sure to teach the cognitive and critical verbs of the task you are asking of your students as well!
Marzanno
Please
read
in your
binder
Marzano calls these critical verbs
the
cognitive verbs.
Align the cognitive verbs and critical verbs to grade level standards
Does this make sense?
Take a few minutes and write down your thoughts
Let's Take a Look
&
Marzano's Cognitive Verbs
Group these verbs with grade level tasks or thinking such as compare and contrast
http://pages.solution-tree.com/rs/solutiontree/images/38mer_final3_vftcc.pdf
http://pages.solution-tree.com/rs/solutiontree/images/38mer_final3_vftcc.pdf
Please take a few minutes to look at your grade level standards and Marzano's cognitive verbs/Springers critical verbs and align them to the tasks that specific grade level common core standards are asking them to accomplish...
Think about teaching this standard...which cognitive vocabulary do your students need to understand deeply for students to be successful with this standard....
.....these are the words that need to be systematically taught during that standard.
These words teach kids how to think
Reflection.....
Take a minute to jot down how applying your knowledge about tier 2 and tier 3 words can make for more deliberate and explicit teaching?
Can we effectively teach out students to THINK with more conscious vocabulary instruction?
Tier 3 words also
exist in LA?
What are they?
Remeber the definitions of the three tiers...
Maybe shifting our thinking a bit about vocabulary instruction will allow for more effective teaching of the CCSS.
Sometimes a slight shift can make a huge difference for our students...
Before we begin...
Notice almost all shifts explicitly involve the processing of text!
.... and teach students how to process and think across content areas
...and teach students via authentic and rich text.
Why is vocabulary tough for kids?
What exactly were the problems she was encountering with her students?
Self-Monitoring Your Schema Activity
Label a blank piece of paper in
the following ways:
1.What I THINK I know:


2.What I THOUGHT I knew but was wrong:
(trash can)


3. What I have learned:
These are the words
that teach students how to think and are not content specfic but can be applied in all content areas!
Cognitive or thinking processes and their groupings according to Marzano.
227 Cognitive Verbs
Total.
Refer to binder to take a look.
This author and what she writes truly resonated with me... I could totally relate to what she was saying.
"In my classroom, I dedicated a lot of time to teaching vocabulary, but I also broke words down for students who were confused by abstract concepts. So instead of really teaching them an academic word, paraphrase, for example, I’d say something like, “retell it in your own words.” They knew what I wanted them to do, but the word itself, which they’ll now encounter on assessments, was lost. With the new rigor of Common Core and SBAC, that's a problem."
-Marilee Springer
http://wiki.canby.k12.or.us/groups/studentachievement/weblog/c159a/Critical_Academic_Vocabulary_Part_1.html
A little
more
information
joconnor@orland135.org
These verbs are directly tied to thinking...
.... and the process of applying thinking when completing school related tasks!
Think about Marzano and all the cognitive verbs that can be grouped together.
Prime the brain!!!
Anchor Chart!
Think about shifting the focus!
Infer
Develop
To preview a text or selection of text and ask students to self-monitor their own comprehension
For example:
word knowledge rating
text coding
writing down unkown words
Full transcript