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The Age of European Exploration

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Ryan Reese

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of The Age of European Exploration

The Age of
European
Exploration

Leif Eriksson
Amerigo Vespucci
Juan Ponce de León
Vasco Nuñez de Balboa
Ferdinand Magellan
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Hernan Cortez
Sir Francis Drake
Jacques Cartier
Hernando de Soto
Samuel de Champlain
Christopher Columbus

From 1601 to 1605, he served as an explorer and cartographer for Henry IV
Champlain discovered Lake Champlain and mapped most of the region from Nova Scotia to Cape Cod and beyond
Sailing for Spain, Columbus earned credit for "discovering" the New World in 1492
Searching for a western trade route to Asia, he landed in present-day Hispaniola, thinking he had arrived in the Indies (islands off the coast of southeast Asia)
Columbus communicated with the crown, completed four voyages between Europe and the Caribbean, establishing permanent Spanish settlements throughout the region
Before we begin -
SPAIN
extend territory and empire
GOLD - relied heavily on goods from the New World
not interested in permanent settlements
ENGLAND
population increase = lack of food, land
religious strife, persecution
Reformation
frequent and costly wars
mercantilism: Joint-Stock Companies
MOTIVATIONS FOR EXPLORATION
3 G's - Gold, God & Glory
A Scandinavian explorer, Eriksson landed in southeastern Canada around 1000 C.E.
Established a colony (Vinland)
Ran out of supplies / food and abandoned the project
Generally seen as the first European to make landfall on American continen
Hernando de Soto



Sailing with Spain, Vespucci went on multiple voyages to the "New World" from 1499 to 1502
In search of new trade routes, Vespucci realized that they had not reached Asia and began mapping the coastline of the continent
His legacy stands as having the American continents named after him
1497-1542, Spain
Accompanied Columbus on the 2nd voyage to the Caribbean in 1499
Appointed Spanish governor of Hispaniola in 1502
Explored and colonized Puerto Rico beginning in 1508
Explored present-day Florida in search of the Fountain of Youth
Established St. Augustine in 1513, the oldest township in the U.S.
Greatly influenced by Ponce de Leon, Magellan, and Balboa.
de Soto's primary objective: gold, silver, and a new route to China.
de Soto was lauded for his clever schemes for the trickery and extortion of native Chiefs.
Was the first explorer to cross the Mississippi River, and delve furthest into the "New World".
Remembered for his particular bravery, horsemanship, and extreme brutality.
Died in Arkansas.

Jacques Cartier
1491-1557, France
Sailing for Spain, Balboa arrived in the Caribbean in 1500, immediately playing a leadership role in the colonization of HIspaniola
In 1510, he went to Panama and began permanent settlements throughout the region
1513: crossing the isthmus of Panama, he was the first European explorer to see the Pacific Ocean from the American continent
He named it "El Mar del Sur" or South Sea
Sailing for Portugal, Magellan and his crew set out to circumnavigate the globe in 1519
In search of spices and new trade routes, as well as personal glory and glory for Portugal
Is credited for naming the Pacific Ocean, as he found peaceful waters and easy sailing
"Discovered" the Philippines, and was killed in battle with islanders in present-day Cebu
Known for being kind and curious to all he encountered throughout the voyage
Claims all of what is now Canada for France.
First European to map and describe the gulf and river of St. Lawrence.
Cartier's navigation of the St. Lawrence River enables him to travel further into Canada than any other explorer.
Has a rocky relationship with the Iroquois as he sometimes maintains friendly relations and sometimes slaughters villages.
Coronado, under the Spanish flag, arrived in Mexico in 1535
From 1539 to 1542, Coronado explored present-day Mexico and the United States in search of the "Seven Cities of Gold" or "El Dorado"
Although he was unsuccessful in his quest, Coronado mapped and explored the American Southwest and went as far north as Kansas
For Spain, Cortez sailed to central America in 1519 with hope to earn personal wealth, fame and glory, while also winning honor for his country
Upon arrival, the Aztec people welcomed and exalted him due to a cultural prophecy that a light-skinned god would arrive by sea
Cortez gained access to the capital city of Tenochtitlan and quickly killed all nobles, assassinated Montezuma and stole all the riches of the Aztec people
He would continue to destroy the empire and take the Aztecs as slaves to work in Spanish colonies
Between 1577-1580, Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the globe, sailing for the English
Knighted and heroic in England, but seen as a pirate and criminal in Spain
1588: 2nd in command of English fleet during naval defeat of Spanish Armada
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