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Chapter 8 Section 4: The War of 1812
Transcript of Chapter 8 Section 4: The War of 1812
The Call for War
The Battle of New Orleans made Jackson a national hero.
Other famous Tennesseeans served under Jackson.
Sequoyah, a Cherokee Indian who would go on to invent the Cherokee alphabet.
Sam Houston, who would go on to be governor of Tennessee and President of the Republic of Texas.
Effects of the War
Before the Battle of New Orleans,
a group of New England Federalists, who opposed the war
, gathered at the Hartford Convention to
discuss seceding from the U.S.
However, the war ended before the delegates got to Washington, and
the Federalist party looked foolish. The Federalists lost most of their political power
at this point.
The Treaty of Ghent ended the war with neither country keeping any of the territory it had conquered.
The war also sparked the American Industrial Revolution because of the boost in American manufacturing
as a result of the lack of British goods in America.
Battle of New Orleans
After the attack on Washington, D.C.,
the British focused on the port city of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson of Tennessee now commanded the U.S. forces around the city.
His troops were a mixture of regular soldiers, free African Americans, Choctaw Indians, state militia, and pirates.
The British had about 5,300 soldiers to Jackson's 4, 500.
When the battle was over, more than 2,000 British soldiers were dead. Jackson lost only 70 men.
The battle of New Orleans actually took place after the war was officially over, but Americans didn't know the Treaty of Ghent had been signed in Europe because news traveled so slowly.
Great Britain on the Offensive
The British had many early successes in the War of 1812.
The British army in the east received reinforcements, and
attacked Washington, D.C.
They set fire to the White House, Capitol, Treasury building.
They then headed to
Baltimore, Maryland, but the city was guarded by Fort McHenry.
British bombarded the fort for 25 hours, but the Americans would not surrender. Finally, the British retreated.
A young lawyer named
Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment of Fort McHenry and wrote a poem about it called "The Star Spangled Banner"
. This song would later become the national anthem of the United States.
Conflict over Land
Native Americans in the NW Territory
had signed the Treaty of Greenville, many tribes
protested Americans moving into their lands.
British agents began arming Native Americans in the territory.
An Indian leader named
Tecumseh hoped to unite Native Americans in the northwestern frontier, the South, and eastern Mississippi Valley.
The governor of Indiana,
William Henry Harrison
, raised an army and attacked the Native Americans
at a creek called Tippecanoe. The U.S. forces defeated Tecumseh and his followers.
Andrew Jackson and the Tennessee militia defeated the Creek Indians in Alabama at Horseshoe Bend.
Violations of Neutrality
After France and Great Britain went to war,
ships started stopping and searching American ships for sailors who had run away from the British navy.
Sometimes U.S. citizens were captured by accident.
impressment, or practice of forcing people to serve in the army or navy, continued despite American protests.
Remember, President Jefferson had tried to punish Great Britain by putting restrictions on British trade with the U.S. with an embargo, but the embargo had disastrous economic effects in the U.S. because Britain placed an embargo on U.S. trade, as well.
Explain the causes, events, and results of the War of 1812 including:
role of Tennessee
Several young members of Congress, called
War Hawks, took the lead in calling for war with Great Britain.
Most of these were from the South and West, led by
Henry Clay of KY and John C. Calhoun of SC.
The strongest opponents of war were New Englanders whose trade had been hurt by the restrictions on British trade.
Many Americans feared the U.S. was not strong enough to fight a powerful nation like Britain. The U.S. Army was small and ill-equipped.
President Madison, pressured by War Hawks, asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain, and it did.