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Industrial Revolution

Complete Overview

Jeff Reznichek

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution

State ownership of some industries.
RRs  Belgium & most of Germany.
Tariffs  British Corn Laws.
National Banks granted a monopoly on issuing bank notes.
Bank of England.
Bank of France.
Companies required to register with the government & publish annual budgets.
New legislation to:
Establish limited liability.
Create rules for the formation of corporations.
Postal system.
Free trade zones  Ger. Zollverein The Politics of Industrialization Industrialization By 1850 British Reform Bill of 1832 Jeremy Bentham The Luddite Triangle Private Charities: The “Lady Bountifuls” Factory Workers at Home Worker Housing in Manchester Early-19c London by Gustave Dore Stereotype of the Factory Owner Crystal Palace: American Pavilion The Impact of the Railroad An Early Steam Locomotive Steam Tractor The Power Loom British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812 Textile Factory Workers in England British Pig Iron Production Young Coal Miners Coalfields & Industrial Areas “Enclosed” Lands Today “Images of the Industrial Revolution.” Mt. Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/ind_rev/images/images-ind-era.html
“The Peel Web: A Web of English History.” http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/mbloy/c-eight/primary.htm Bibliographic Sources Share in World Manufacturing Output: 1750-1900 Railroads on the Continent Northeast France.
The Netherlands.
Western German states.
Northern Italy
East Germany  Saxony By 1850: Zones of Industrialization on the European Continent British Reform Bills Abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].
Sadler Commission to look into working conditions
Factory Act [1833] – child labor.
New Poor Law [1834] – indoor relief.
Poor houses.
Reform Bill [1832] – broadens the vote for the cities. Government Response “Iron Law of Wages.”
When wages are high, workers have more children.
More children create a large labor surplus that depresses wages. David Ricardo Give manufactures more outlets for their products.
Expand employment.
Lower the price of bread.
Make British agriculture more efficient and productive.
Expose trade and agriculture to foreign competition.
Promote international peace through trade contact. Anti-Corn Law League, 1845 Votes for all men.
Equal electoral districts.
Abolition of the requirement that Members of Parliament [MPs] be property owners.
Payment for Members of Parliament.
Annual general elections.
The secret ballot. Drafted in 1838 by William Lovett.
Radical campaign for Parliamentary reform of the inequalities created by the Reform Bill of 1832. The “Peoples’ Charter” The Luddites Private Charities: Soup Kitchens Workers Housing in Newcastle Today The New Industrial City Industrial Staffordshire Factory Wages in Lancashire, 1830 “Upstairs”/“Downstairs” Life Criticism of the New Bourgeoisie 19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche Crystal Palace: British Ingenuity on Display Crystal Palace: Interior Exhibits Exhibitions of the new industrial utopia. Crystal Palace Exhibition: 1851 “The Great Land Serpent” Later Locomotives Steam Ship James Watt’s Steam Engine John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” Jacquard’s Loom Young “Bobbin-Doffers” Textile Factory Workers in England Rigid schedule.
12-14 hour day.
Dangerous conditions.
Mind-numbing monotony. The Factory System Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor].
Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets].
Requires a lot of capital investment [factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor.
Only 10% of English industry in 1850. Factory Production Coal Mining in Britain: 1800-1914 Metals, Woolens, & Canals The Enclosure Movement That Nation of Shopkeepers! -- Napoleon Bonaparte The goal of society is the greatest good for the greatest number.
There is a role to play for government intervention to provide some social safety net. The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill Peterloo Massacre, 1819 British Soldiers Fire on British Workers: Let us die like men, and not be sold like slaves! The Silent Highwayman - 1858 Problems of Polution The “Water Frame” Richard Arkwright: “Pioneer of the Factory System” Child “hurriers” Child Labor in the Mines Britain’s Earliest Transportation Infrastructure Early Canals Population growth will outpace the food supply.
War, disease, or famine could control population.
The poor should have less children.
Food supply will then keep up with population. Thomas Malthus The Neo-Luddites Today Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] Attacks on the “frames” [power looms]. The Luddites: 1811-1816 The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare! People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals.
Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, well-connected few.
Tried to build perfect communities [utopias]. The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists A physical force— Chartists arming for the fight. A female Chartist The Chartists The Chartists New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution Life in the Industrial Revolution New Ways of Thinking British Government Response to Dislocation Created by Industrialization The Effects of Industrialization at the end of the 19c
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