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Elements of Argument Writing

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Kelley Dutra

on 18 September 2015

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Transcript of Elements of Argument Writing

Which of these opinions can be argued with supporting facts?
1. Notes on Argument (fact vs. opinion)
2. Fact vs. opinion practice
(Check homework and agendas)
3 Elements of Argument
Fact Vs. Opinion
Opinion that CAN be argued with facts:

John is the best candidate for president.
Fact and opinion brainstorm
Peas are the tastiest food there is.
On Google drive or on paper.
Brainstorm 5 facts that you have learned in school this year (any class)

Brainstorm 5 opinions that you have developed this year (any topic)

Brainstorm 5 opinions that you may have (at any point in your life and any topic) that can be argued with facts.

List one "proof fact" per opinion.
Facts to Support your Opinion
Supporting facts in your argument are the supporting pillars of the building.
Your OPINION must be supported by at least three true, testable, FACTS.
Snowball fight!
On a scrap piece of paper, write down a fact or an opinion.
Crumple up your paper.
Elements of Argument Writing
How does making an effective argument benefit my life?
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
Claim=Opinion that can be supported by facts
(Not all opinions can be supported by facts)
Tomorrow I will check for apps:
Educreations, Adobe Reader, QR Reader, iMovie (free), Socrative, Google Docs
Lorde is the most talented music artist of her time.
This is the happiest time of the year!
Thanksgiving's true meaning as been abandoned.
Main goal of an argument is to convince someone else to share your opinion.
Space Race!
Agenda 12/2/14
1. Review fact vs. opinion
Space race
Fact and opinion brainstorm
Snowball fight
Groups of 4
One iPad per group
Everyone takes turn answering
Use Socrative Student
Stand up.
Half move to the front, half to the back.
On the count of three....
1, 2, 3, TOSS!
Open a snowball and move to the label that best fits your statement (Fact, opinion, opinion that can be argued with facts)
Agenda 12/18/14
1. Notes on supporting facts

2. Identify facts and opinions and supporting facts in 2 articles
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
Remember, your main goal when posing your argument (written or verbal) is to get the other side to agree with your opinion.
You can find these facts from reliable sources (books, internet, experts, etc.).
You must cite your sources.
Read through each side of the argument.
Circle the MAIN opinion with the first color for each argument.
Use the second color of pen or marker to highlight or underline supporting FACTS.
Obtain 3 colors of pens or markers.
Use a third color to highlight or underline opinions used as support.
On a half sheet of paper, state which side you agree with and why in one paragraph.
Assemble the Argument!
Argument: Should illegal immigrants be eligible for in-state tuition?
Class agree or disagree with their placement.
1. Fact vs. opinion warm-up
2.Assemble the argument
3. Quickwrite
Within your teams, stand up and separate into sides of the argument (yes and no) according to your slip of paper.
Each read point aloud
Two teams.
Each will have points from both sides of the argument printed on a slip of paper.
Fact or opinion?
1. Minors cannot vote or run for office, and in most cases they cannot live without guardians.
Explain your answers.
2. It is with good reason that there are restrictions placed on teenagers.
3. Examining data collected from 76,000 students nationwide between 1998 and 2001, Lloyd D. Johnston . . . found that "there really isn't an impact from drug testing as practiced."
4. Since 2001, when the Supreme Court ruled that random school drug testing is constitutional, more schools have adopted the practice.
5. Randomly screening the urine of America's youth is an excessively invasive policy that fails to achieve it's purpose.
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
Supporting your support
Sometime facts without explanations are not strong enough support.

Illegal immigrants should not be eligible for in-state tuition.
Supporting Fact:
In New Mexico, in-state tuition covers about one fifth of the actual cost of providing a college education at state schools; the remainder is picked up by tax payers.
This supporting fact does not support the argument well on it's own.
It needs further support called THE WARRANT.
The Warrant
Gives reasoning behind your supporting facts.
Further proof that what you are saying is valid and relevant to the argument.
Can be opinions, accepted truths, normalities, patterns etc.

Think about a cop needing a warrant (proof that what they are saying is valid) to get into a house for evidence (or in this case: support).
Warrant for previous supporting fact:
Why should tax payers in New Mexico, or any other state, foot the bill for education of people who broke the rules and came to the U.S. illegally? Doing so will only encourage more people to come here illegally.
The Lunchroom Murder
Who killed Fannin?
1. Turn in homework to folders (warrant practice and lunchroom murder)
2. Notes on ethos, pathos, logos
3. Short Finals discussion
Find evidence to support your claim. Use reasons (warrants) to back up your evidence.
Evidence: Customer A left a plate of food.
Warrant: Customer must have left in a hurry because people do not normally leave a plate of untouched food if they had time to eat it.

Work in partners
Extra Practice
Claim=Main Opinion that can be argued

Supporting Facts=Evidence/Reasons your opinion is correct

Warrant=Why the supporting facts proves your claim
You may work with the person sitting beside you.
Three Simple Questions
1. What do you see?
2.What do you feel?
3. What did the commercial writers do to make you feel this way?
Furthering your Support:Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
How can I use ethos, pathos, and logos to further my support in my argument?
What is ethos?
Ethos is a Greek word for "an appeal to ethics."
When you appeal to someone's ethics, you are asking them to pay attention to their sense of duty or responsibility, OR are appealing to perceived credibility.
Ex: The principal says, "Do your part in keeping the campus clean."
What is pathos?
Pathos is a Greek word for "an appeal to emotions."
When you appeal to someone's emotions, you are asking them to pay attention to what others are feeling as well as themselves.
Ex: Little children starve to death every year in Africa. A penny a day could change their lives for the better. Please help.
What is logos?
Logos is a Greek word for "an appeal to logic."
When you appeal to someone's logic you are asking them to pay attention to what makes the best sense.
Ex: Dial soap kills 99.9% of germs.
Use statistics, facts, research.
Use stories, pictures, music.
Use success stories, "why me?" stories, expert opinion.
Commercials. . . Are they arguments?
1. What is the claim in the puppy commercial?
2. What appeal are they using?
3. What is the claim in the car commercial?
4. What appeal are they using?

5. What is the claim in the anti-smoking commercial?
6. What appeal are they using?
Find Someone Who . . .
Walk around the room and ask your peers if they can do the tasks labeled on the chart.
If they can, they need to do it, then sign, and be prepared to give their answer later.
1. Quick Ethos, Pathos, Logos review

2. Review Worksheet
Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Review
Earn Your Points!
20 points total today
5 points for each plus I give you when I see you getting your work done.
Select a New Mascot
John L. Lewis Elementary needs a new mascot!
Which one should they choose? Make an argument!
Decide which mascot would be the better choice.
Write it down as a CLAIM on your paper using a sentence stem provided.
Give a supporting reason using a sentence frame provided.
1. Share your arguments aloud.
2. Choose the best claim for the whole
group. (discuss and vote)
3. Write your groups' claim on your
poster first.
4. Then, add everyone's supporting
reasons in
paragraph form.
(everyone writes their own)
5. Write one warrant for the whole
6. Color code your claim, support, and
As a group:
1. Learning Reflection
2. Missing work
Learning Reflection
Tell me what you have learned in this class this semester.
Create a Paragraph
Remember: A warrant is the reason your supporting fact is important to your argument.
Did you learn anything new about yourself as a student?
What was one thing from any class that really stuck out to you and will stay with your for a while (knowledge or an activity)?
Was the material new? Was it review?
What was your favorite activity? What would you be interested in learning next semester?
20 points next semester
Counter Argument
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
A counter argument is a brief mention of objections that "the other side" is likely to raise.
AND the Rebuttal
A rebuttal is your response to the counter argument.
Ex: Some may say that people should not consume twinkies because they are an unhealthy snack, but when one eats a twinkie, it is not for health reasons. Twinkies are meant to be a sweet treat on special occasions, not a healthy meal.
Counter argument
What's the point?
Anticipating the reader's concerns and objections but then disproving them will further convince them of your claim.
1. Clean out folders

2. Counter argument notes (take out "3 Elements of Argument" notes

3. Counter Argument Worksheet (Homework if not complete in class)
Cleaning out Folders
You may remove anything from your folder EXCEPT argument notes and worksheets.
Place new agenda in your folder.
SSR books
Pass in slip of paper with titles if you have them.
Bring a book for SSR on Friday!

You may also select a book from the shelves.
Full transcript