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Elements of Argument Writing

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Kelley Dutra

on 13 November 2018

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Transcript of Elements of Argument Writing

Which of these opinions can be argued with supporting facts?
3 Elements of Argument
Fact Vs. Opinion
Opinion that CAN be argued with facts:

John is the best candidate for president.
Fact and opinion brainstorm
Peas are the tastiest food there is.
On Google drive or on paper.
Brainstorm 5 facts that you have learned in school this year (any class)

Brainstorm 5 opinions that you have developed this year (any topic)

Brainstorm 5 opinions that you may have (at any point in your life and any topic) that can be argued with facts.

List one "proof fact" per opinion.
Facts to Support your Opinion
Supporting facts (evidence) in your argument are the supporting pillars of the building.
Your OPINION must be supported by at least three true, testable, FACTS (evidence).
Snowball fight!
On a scrap piece of paper, write down a fact or an opinion.
Crumple up your paper.
Elements of Argument Writing
What makes an effective argument?
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
Claim=Opinion that can be supported by facts
(Not all opinions can be supported by facts)
Drake is the most talented music artist of his time.
This is the happiest time of the year!
The true meaning of Christmas has been abandoned.
Main goal of an argument is to convince someone else to share your opinion.
Space Race!
Groups of 4
One iPad per group
Everyone takes turn answering
Use Socrative Student
Stand up.
Half move to the front, half to the back.
On the count of three....
1, 2, 3, TOSS!
Open a snowball and move to the label that best fits your statement (Fact, opinion, opinion that can be argued with facts)
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
Remember, your main goal when posing your argument (written or verbal) is to get the other side to agree with your opinion.
You can find these facts from reliable sources (books, internet, experts, etc.).
You must cite your sources.
Read through each side of the argument.
Circle the MAIN opinion with the first color for each argument.
Use the second color of pen or marker to highlight or underline supporting FACTS.
Obtain 3 colors of pens or markers.
Use a third color to highlight or underline opinions used as support.
On a half sheet of paper, state which side you agree with and why in one paragraph.
Assemble the Argument!
Argument: Should illegal immigrants be eligible for in-state tuition?
Class agree or disagree with their placement.
Within your teams, stand up and separate into sides of the argument (yes and no) according to your slip of paper.
Each read point aloud
Two teams.
Each will have points from both sides of the argument printed on a slip of paper.
Fact or opinion?
1. Minors cannot vote or run for office, and in most cases they cannot live without guardians.
Explain your answers.
2. It is with good reason that there are restrictions placed on teenagers.
3. Examining data collected from 76,000 students nationwide between 1998 and 2001, Lloyd D. Johnston . . . found that "there really isn't an impact from drug testing as practiced."
4. Since 2001, when the Supreme Court ruled that random school drug testing is constitutional, more schools have adopted the practice.
5. Randomly screening the urine of America's youth is an excessively invasive policy that fails to achieve it's purpose.
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
Supporting your support
Sometime facts without explanations are not strong enough support.

People should eat more vegetables on a daily basis.
Supporting Fact:
Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, vitamin A, and vitamin C ("Nutrients and Health Benefits").
This supporting fact does not support the argument well on it's own.
It needs further support called REASONING.
The Reasoning
Gives explanation of the importance of your supporting facts/evidence.
Further proof that what you are saying is valid and relevant to the argument.
Clears up any confusion of facts.
People should eat more vegetables on a daily basis.
Supporting Fact:
Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, vitamin A, and vitamin C ("Nutrients and Health Benefits").
The Lunchroom Murder
Who killed Fannin?
Record evidence to support your claim. Use reasoning to back up your evidence. Draw conclusions.
Customer A left a plate of food.
Normally, people do not leave a plate of untouched food if they had time to eat it, so Customer A must have left in a hurry.
Therefore, Customer A could have been the killer fleeing the scene.

Work in partners
Extra Practice
Claim=Main Opinion that can be argued

Supporting Facts=Evidence/Reasons your opinion is correct

Warrant=Why the supporting facts proves your claim
You may work with the person sitting beside you.
Three Simple Questions
1. What do you see?
2.What do you feel?
3. What did the commercial writers do to make you feel this way?
Furthering your Support:Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
How can I use ethos, pathos, and logos to further my support in my argument?
What is ethos?
Ethos is a Greek word for "an appeal to ethics."
When you appeal to someone's ethics, you are asking them to pay attention to their sense of duty or responsibility, OR are appealing to perceived credibility.
Ex: The principal says, "Do your part in keeping the campus clean."
What is pathos?
Pathos is a Greek word for "an appeal to emotions."
When you appeal to someone's emotions, you are asking them to pay attention to what others are feeling as well as themselves.
Ex: Little children starve to death every year in Africa. A penny a day could change their lives for the better. Please help.
What is logos?
Logos is a Greek word for "an appeal to logic."
When you appeal to someone's logic you are asking them to pay attention to what makes the best sense.
Ex: Dial soap kills 99.9% of germs.
Use statistics, facts, research.
Use stories, pictures, music (if possible).
Use success stories and expert opinions etc. to create.
Commercials. . . Are they arguments?
1. What is the claim in the Coca Cola/ Walmart
2. What appeal are they using?
3. What is the claim in the car commercial?
4. What appeal are they using?

5. What is the claim in the anti-smoking commercial?
6. What appeal are they using?
Find Someone Who . . .
Walk around the room and ask your peers if they can do the tasks labeled on the chart.
If they can, they need to do it, then sign, and be prepared to give their answer later.
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos Review
Earn Your Points!
20 points total today
5 points for each plus I give you when I see you getting your work done.
Select a New Mascot
John L. Lewis Elementary needs a new mascot!
Which one should they choose? Make an argument!
Decide which mascot would be the better choice.
Write it down as a CLAIM on your paper using a sentence stem provided.
Give TWO supporting facts (evidence) that supports your claim.
1. Share your claim and reason aloud.
2. Choose the best claim between the two of you.
3. Write your group's
on the paper.
4. Next, add one
supporting fact
followed by

that explains why the supporting fact given was
important in selecting the mascot.
Repeat step 4 two more times using different facts.
5. To finish, restate your
in different words.
Learning Reflection
Tell me what you have learned in this class this semester.
Create a mini argument
Did you learn anything new about yourself as a student?
What was one thing from any class that really stuck out to you and will stay with your for a while (knowledge or an activity)?
Was the material new? Was it review?
What was your favorite activity? What would you be interested in learning next semester?
20 points next semester
Counter Argument
Claim (Foundation)
Counter Argument
A counter argument is a brief mention of objections that "the other side" is likely to raise.
AND the Rebuttal
A rebuttal is your response to the counter argument using facts.
Ex: Some may say that a person can get most of their nutrients from other sources of food. It is true, one can get nutrients from other sources, but many times these other foods are also high in fat or cholesterol.

Counter argument
What's the point?
Anticipating the reader's concerns and objections but then disproving them will further convince them of your claim.

Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Vitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections while Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. All are necessary for a healthy life

("Nutrients and Health Benefits").

A new school called John L. Lewis Middle School, has just opened in Floodrock, Illinois. The town is in Saline County, in the very southern region of the state. The current enrollment is 315. The area has two major industries: farming and coal mining. Many families in Saline County have some connection to the coal mines. However, since fewer homes and businesses depend on coal as an energy source these days, mine activity has slowed and coal companies no longer employ many residents. Farming is now their main industry. Nevertheless, the citizens of the town of Floodrock associate themselves with the coal industry and have named the school after John L. Lewis, who was the president of the United Mine Workers of America for forty years. The school has not yet selected a mascot, and the school leaders are running a contest to select one. The mascot’s image will appear on the gym floor, on school stationary, on school spirit wear, and on publications. The four possibilities under final consideration are: dolphins, eagles, farmers and miners. YOU have been asked to judge the contest.
Selecting a School’s Mascot
John L. Lewis School
River Rats
The new school located in Floodrock, Illinois should choose the mascot of a river rat.

The school is located next to the Mississippi River.

Many times mascots are chosen for surrounding environment, so a mascot that has to do with the river would be fitting.

Also, rats have a reputation for surviving the toughest conditions.

A mascot that has this type of quality would be a good reminder for it's students to persevere when school gets rough.

Finally, the words "River" and "Rat" form alliteration (they both start with R), so it makes the mascot sound catchy.

It is important to have a catchy sounding mascot so it will be remembered.

All are great reasons why John L. Lewis school should choose a river rat for their mascot.
Supporting facts
Color Key:
I should see handwriting alternating between both partners!
Make a claim based on evidence.
Sustained Silent Reading
Read Quietly for 20 mins
5 points for silent participation
5 points for reflection
Matching Game
Match each advertisement with the correct appeal (ethos, pathos, or logos)
Split ads as evenly as possible between your group.
Be prepared to explain your reasons!
Ethos, pathos, and logos are all called by the fancy name of RHETORICAL APPEALS.
Rhetorical = having to do with writing arguments
Appeal = how you are going to get someone to agree with you.
Convince me!
On the Google Form, convince me to let you eat food in class using all three devices separately.
If the class produces 100% correct usage, it will happen on a day of my choosing.
Ethos: Ethics
Pathos: Emotion
Logos: Logic
(responsibility and perceived credibility)
(touchy-feely, mushy-gooshy)
(Data, statistics, reasonable logic)
Full transcript