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Protestant Reformation

created for my 10th grade World History II classes
by

Lucas Wilson

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation
1517
1529-1555
Friar Johann Tetzel was raising money to rebuild the St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.

How so? By selling
indulgences
....
An
indulgence
was a pardon which released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins.

Indulgences were not supposed to affect God's right to judge, but priests like Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven.
In response - Luther wrote
95 Theses
and posted these statements on the door of the castle church in Wittenburg and
invited scholars
to
debate
him.
Someone copied Luther's words and
took them to a
printer
...
1520
Luther's ideas spread across ...
EUROPE
1. All people need are faith in God's forgiveness to get to heaven
2. Church teachings should strictly be based on the Bible
3. All people with faith are equal. You don't need priests to interpret the Bible.
I hate you Luther!
!
Pope Leo X
excommunicates
Luther....

Luther res
ponds by
throwing his decree into a bonfire.
I don't care
Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V summoned Luther and put him on trial.

The
Edict of Worms
- Luther is a

heretic
.
I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen.
1522
by 1522 - Luther and his followers had become a separate religious group, called...
LUTHERANS
1524
The Peasants' Revolt
were inspired by reformers' talk of Christian freedom, and demanded an end to serfdom!
RAGHGHRHR
Went about the countryside raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burning
Germany at
WAR
Some Princes agree
Some don't but support Luther anyway
Some remain faithful to Catholic Church
known as
PROTESTANTS
Charles V wins but even so no one would come back to Catholic Church.
PEACE OF AUGSBURG
All Protestant and Catholic princes met and agreed that each ruler would decide the religion of his state.
1527
Germany
England
Henry VIII wants a divorce so he can make miniature Henrys
1529
Reformation Parliament
1534
The Act of
SUPREMACY
1558
ELIZABETH
GIVE ME AN ANNULMENT
!
NO!!
HENRY!
I can give you LOTS of sons!
take THAT Catholic
Church!
set of laws that ended the pope's power in England

divorced Catherine & married Anne in 1533
called people to take an oath recognizing the divorce and
accepting HENRY, not the pop
e, as the official head of
England's Church.

... anyone who refused
got their head choped off :(

also appropriated land & mo
ney of the Church in
England
Anne of Cleves
Catherine
Howard
Edward
Jane Seymour
Mary
Elizabeth
1st wife
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Catherine of Aragon
devout catholic
aunt of Charles V
daughter of Catherine & Henry
devo
ut Catholic like her mother
Anne Boleyn
2nd wife
Protestant
very manipulative
beheaded for treason after
3 yrs of marriage
protestant like her father
becomes queen after Mary dies in 1558
finally gives him a son
dies right after child birth
becomes king at 9 yrs old
died at 15 yrs old
Henry was horrified when he met her because he thought she was ugly.
He set her up in a fancy castle but had the marriage annuled
big flirt, has affairs and gets her head chopped off
Catherine
Parr
outlived Henry
Edward takes over in his death
The Tudors
restores Church of England (or
Anglican Church
) with her as its head

combines pieces of Catholic and Protestant practices as a compromise

TOLERANT OF DISSENTERS
1533-1605
Causes
Social
Political
Religious
The Renaissance values of
humanism
and
secularism
led people to questions the Church

The printing press helped to spread ideas critical of the Church
powerful
monarchs
challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe
many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority
Economic
European princes and kings were jealous of the Church's wealth

Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the church
some Church
leaders had
become world
ly and
corrupt

Many people fo
und Church
practices such a
s the sale of
indulgences
un
acceptable
arly reformers
late 1300s
John Wycliffe
church is corrupt!
Christians should listen to the Bible, not the Church
my followers and I translated the first English

Bible
I helped spread ideas across Europe & influenced other reformers
Jan
Huss
VERNACULAR!
no more INDULGENCES
!
you're too rich!
is it hot in here?
John Calvin
gives order to Protestantism
Institutes of the Christian Religion
PREDESTINATION
Calvinism
THEOCRACY
Huguenots in France
**Most Protestant churches trace their roots to Calvinism today
1536
Council of Trent
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
The Inquisition
Effects
Social & Religious
Political
Protestant churches flourish & new denominations develop
eventual growth of religious tolerance
growth of secularism/individualism
Catholic Church more unified
Less power for the Catholic Church(Religion no longer unifies Europe)
More power for the monarchs
More people ? the church teachings.
pursue independent/scientific thinking
Division leads to WAR (30 YEARS WAR)
Groundwork for Enlightenment
Kind of a big deal: The printing press was able to produce 3,600 pages a day vs. 40 pages by hand.
Also paper was easier and cheaper to manufacture (make) during this time.
Who cares. Why was this so important?

These ideals appealed to the urban (city peeps) and literate(reading peeps)

It help increase criticism that was directed toward the Catholic Church.

Criticism which ultimately leads to reforms (changes) in the Catholic Church.
before the Catholics had a chance to squash them
Brainstorm:
The Protestant Reformation is sweeping across Central Europe and England. You have been hired by the pope to develop ideas that the church can implement in order to stop believers (souls) from converting to these heretical faiths. What are you top three ideas? Hurry, you must act quickly, or PROTESTANTISM may over run Europe.
Enter the Catholic (Counter) Reformation
1530s-1648
It's basically the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation.
2 TACTICS:
1.) Reforms the Church from WITHIN
2.)STOP the spread of Protestantism
1545-1563
Reform from
WITHIN:
Purpose: Church held 3 meetings to discuss reforms and define official teaching(dogma)
Areas reformed:
called for priests begin educated, improved discipline/administration among clergy, and Banned INDULGENCES!
Teachings that were not changed but,
enforced, were the ideas that Protestant
rejected.
Such as...
~

~7 Sacraments

~ Bible is written in LATIN, not the Vernacular

~ POPE = SUPREME LEADER

~MAN has FREE WILL (your fate is not predestined)

SALVATION
The Council revitalized the Catholic Church- focused of charity and good works.
A religious group founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540.

Promoted education
Missionary work
Strive for political influence
Considered fanatical

Why?
The general purpose was to discover heretics (mostly Jews and Muslims but also Protestants), reinforce the Catholic doctrine, and proved the power of the church.

When?
1400s-1800s
Where?
Mostly Spain and Italy
IRONIC!!! (These places were Catholic strongholds.)

How?
The accused were put on trial and were GUILTY UNTIL PROVEN INNOCENT...

Torture was used to gain confessions.
The Inquisition often used the AUTO-DE-FE: "Act of Faith," a public trail that was usually followed by torture of execution.
The Index (List) of Prohibited Books
~Created in 1559 by the Pope
~ Purpose was to prevent Heresy via literature and ensure books were morally correct.

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