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Transcript of Protestant Reformation
Friar Johann Tetzel was raising money to rebuild the St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome.
How so? By selling
was a pardon which released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins.
Indulgences were not supposed to affect God's right to judge, but priests like Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven.
In response - Luther wrote
and posted these statements on the door of the castle church in Wittenburg and
Someone copied Luther's words and
took them to a
Luther's ideas spread across ...
1. All people need are faith in God's forgiveness to get to heaven
2. Church teachings should strictly be based on the Bible
3. All people with faith are equal. You don't need priests to interpret the Bible.
I hate you Luther!
Pope Leo X
throwing his decree into a bonfire.
I don't care
Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V summoned Luther and put him on trial.
Edict of Worms
- Luther is a
I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen.
by 1522 - Luther and his followers had become a separate religious group, called...
The Peasants' Revolt
were inspired by reformers' talk of Christian freedom, and demanded an end to serfdom!
Went about the countryside raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burning
Some Princes agree
Some don't but support Luther anyway
Some remain faithful to Catholic Church
Charles V wins but even so no one would come back to Catholic Church.
PEACE OF AUGSBURG
All Protestant and Catholic princes met and agreed that each ruler would decide the religion of his state.
Henry VIII wants a divorce so he can make miniature Henrys
The Act of
GIVE ME AN ANNULMENT
I can give you LOTS of sons!
take THAT Catholic
set of laws that ended the pope's power in England
divorced Catherine & married Anne in 1533
called people to take an oath recognizing the divorce and
accepting HENRY, not the pop
e, as the official head of
... anyone who refused
got their head choped off :(
also appropriated land & mo
ney of the Church in
Anne of Cleves
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Catherine of Aragon
aunt of Charles V
daughter of Catherine & Henry
ut Catholic like her mother
beheaded for treason after
3 yrs of marriage
protestant like her father
becomes queen after Mary dies in 1558
finally gives him a son
dies right after child birth
becomes king at 9 yrs old
died at 15 yrs old
Henry was horrified when he met her because he thought she was ugly.
He set her up in a fancy castle but had the marriage annuled
big flirt, has affairs and gets her head chopped off
Edward takes over in his death
restores Church of England (or
) with her as its head
combines pieces of Catholic and Protestant practices as a compromise
TOLERANT OF DISSENTERS
The Renaissance values of
led people to questions the Church
The printing press helped to spread ideas critical of the Church
challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe
many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority
European princes and kings were jealous of the Church's wealth
Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the church
Many people fo
practices such a
s the sale of
church is corrupt!
Christians should listen to the Bible, not the Church
my followers and I translated the first English
I helped spread ideas across Europe & influenced other reformers
no more INDULGENCES
you're too rich!
is it hot in here?
gives order to Protestantism
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Huguenots in France
**Most Protestant churches trace their roots to Calvinism today
Council of Trent
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Social & Religious
Protestant churches flourish & new denominations develop
eventual growth of religious tolerance
growth of secularism/individualism
Catholic Church more unified
Less power for the Catholic Church(Religion no longer unifies Europe)
More power for the monarchs
More people ? the church teachings.
pursue independent/scientific thinking
Division leads to WAR (30 YEARS WAR)
Groundwork for Enlightenment
Kind of a big deal: The printing press was able to produce 3,600 pages a day vs. 40 pages by hand.
Also paper was easier and cheaper to manufacture (make) during this time.
Who cares. Why was this so important?
These ideals appealed to the urban (city peeps) and literate(reading peeps)
It help increase criticism that was directed toward the Catholic Church.
Criticism which ultimately leads to reforms (changes) in the Catholic Church.
before the Catholics had a chance to squash them
The Protestant Reformation is sweeping across Central Europe and England. You have been hired by the pope to develop ideas that the church can implement in order to stop believers (souls) from converting to these heretical faiths. What are you top three ideas? Hurry, you must act quickly, or PROTESTANTISM may over run Europe.
Enter the Catholic (Counter) Reformation
It's basically the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation.
1.) Reforms the Church from WITHIN
2.)STOP the spread of Protestantism
Purpose: Church held 3 meetings to discuss reforms and define official teaching(dogma)
called for priests begin educated, improved discipline/administration among clergy, and Banned INDULGENCES!
Teachings that were not changed but,
enforced, were the ideas that Protestant
~ Bible is written in LATIN, not the Vernacular
~ POPE = SUPREME LEADER
~MAN has FREE WILL (your fate is not predestined)
The Council revitalized the Catholic Church- focused of charity and good works.
A religious group founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540.
Strive for political influence
The general purpose was to discover heretics (mostly Jews and Muslims but also Protestants), reinforce the Catholic doctrine, and proved the power of the church.
Mostly Spain and Italy
IRONIC!!! (These places were Catholic strongholds.)
The accused were put on trial and were GUILTY UNTIL PROVEN INNOCENT...
Torture was used to gain confessions.
The Inquisition often used the AUTO-DE-FE: "Act of Faith," a public trail that was usually followed by torture of execution.
The Index (List) of Prohibited Books
~Created in 1559 by the Pope
~ Purpose was to prevent Heresy via literature and ensure books were morally correct.