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BTEC Sport - LEVEL 3 - Muscular System

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on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of BTEC Sport - LEVEL 3 - Muscular System

MUSCULAR SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS OF MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Movement
Skeletal Muscles are responsible for all
voluntary movements
of human body parts. they provide the force by contacting actively at the expense of energy.

Why is it Voluntary?
They are under the control of the human will and all body
movements
occurring by our will produced by skeletal muscles.

Antagonistic Muscle Pairs:
Agonist
Antagonist
Fixator
Synergist

Contraction:
Concentric Contraction
Eccentric Contraction
Isometric Contraction
Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
Agonist: This muscle is a prime mover muscle that contracts to produce a movement.

Antagonist: A muscle that relaxes to let the agonist muscle to contract.

Example: When an individual is doing bicep curls, the dumbbell gets raised up towards the shoulder to the point where he/she can't raise it anymore, while this movement is happening the
bicep
(Agonist) is contracting to produce movement and the
tricep
(Antagonist) is relaxing to let the bicep contract.

The Bicep and Tricep switch roles when the arm is Extended.
Synergist: a muscle that aids the action of
prime mover
basically a muscle which has the main responsibility for a particular movement.

Fixator: a muscle that acts as a
stabilizer
of one part of the body during movement of another muscle.

Example: when you do bicep curls the muscles that act as stabilizers for the movement of the arm (bicep) is the
obliques and abdominal
, with these muscles you would fall on the side with the dumbbell. The
Deltoids
aid the movement of the upper arm (Biceps and Triceps) while doing bicep curls.
Maintain Posture
Heat Production
Support the Skeleton
Produce Movement
Digestion
Blood Circulation
Muscle Contractions
Isometric - This type of contraction only happens when there is no change in the length of the contracting muscle.

Eccentric - This type of contraction causes the muscle to expand as it contracts.

Concentric - This type of contraction is the opposite to the eccentric contraction, this causes the muscle to shorten as it contracts.
Muscle Contraction Examples
Eccentric Muscle Contraction
The simple example of a eccentric muscle contraction is when your doing
bicep curls
and you lower the dumbbell to maintain balance and posture. The muscle contracts when you lift the dumbbell (concentric contraction) and it also contracts when you lower it (eccentric contraction).
Concentric Muscle Contraction
A simple example of a concentric muscle contraction is when your doing
pull ups
, the contraction occurs when you pull yourself up to the bar. This contraction also occurs when lifting a dumbbell (bicep curls).
Isometric Muscle Contraction
The bicep curl exercise is a good example for this muscle contraction, this contraction occurs when you keep the dumbbell lowered 90 degrees away from your shoulder (basically in the middle of a concentric and eccentric contraction), determining no change in change in the length of the contracting muscle (no movement). Another example will be
The Plank
.
Muscle Fibers
Muscle Fibers
Slow Twitch Muscle Fiber Type 1
are red in color because their efficient use of
oxygen
and high volumes of
myoglobin
. These muscle fibers are used in muscular endurance & aerobic activities such as the 5,000m run, 10,000m run or marathons/triathlons.

Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber Type 2a
are red in color. These fibers are used in muscular endurance based exercises like bench press or push ups. They contain a large amounts of myoglobin and
mitochondria
.

Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber Type 2b
are white in color because they contain a low amount of myoglobin and mitochondria. These fibers are used for short duration, high bursts of power exercises such as the 100m sprint or the barbell lift.
MAINTAIN POSTURE
The definition for

posture is a position or attitude of the limbs or body.
Maintaining posture
includes supporting your spine, keeping your arms up, keeping you head up and holding back your shoulders.
Sensory receptors
in the muscles record the tension and size of the muscle and provide the
nervous system
with important information about the position of the body parts, this then maintains posture. Muscles involved with posture are called
Tonic Muscles
. Tunic muscles hold your body parts in place by using isometric contractions.
HEAT PRODUCTION
The amount heat the human body produces depends on the weight, diet and how active they are daily. To maintain a constant
body temperature
, the body needs to
produce heat
. When muscles contract to cause the bones to move, heat is generated. When your body is exposed to cold air your muscles contract to maintain normal body temperature but when your body is exposed to a lot of heat the muscles redistribute the heat to the skin and produce sweat to regulate body temperature.
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SUPPORT THE SKELETON
Your
muscle system
aids the skeleton in
movement
and
structure/stability
. Muscles are connected to the bones with a extremely strong material called
Tendons
. Muscles are a kind of tissue which contain a lot of
elastic fibers
.

Throughout your body there is a particular muscle tissue called
skeletal muscles
which are attached to the bones. When you want to move, your brain sends signals to the skeletal muscles to tell them to adjust the position of the skeleton therefore supporting it in movement and stability.
DIGESTION
Digestion
is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed. The
Human Digestive System
is responsible for extracting
nutrition
from food, it is also responsible for absorbing
nutritional molecules
into the
bloodstream
. The Jaw and Tongue muscles break down food into small pieces. The muscles in the throat then guides the food down the
esophagus
. The stomach muscles then churn the pieces of food, breaking them down into smaller pieces then mixes it into
stomach acid
. The muscle contractions of the
intestines
then guide the food through the digestive tract.
BLOOD CIRCULATION
How the Heart works
The
de-oxygenated blood
travels to the
lungs
. The blood then takes oxygen from the lungs and travels towards the
left atrium
through the
pulmonary vein
. The blood then travels towards the
left ventricle
through the
bicuspid valve
. The blood then travels through the
semi lunar valve
into the
Aorta
. the blood then travels out of the aorta giving the body oxygen. The de-oxygenated blood then travels towards the
right atrium
via
vena cava
. The right atrium contracts and pushes the blood through the
tricuspid valve
and into the
right ventricle
. The blood then travels towards the lungs to repeats the process.
Blood circulation
is when the blood constantly circulates due to the pumping action of the heart, which sends blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen, and then pumps it to the rest of the body.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscular_system
http://www.desktopclass.com/education/9th-10th/support-and-movement-in-man-biology-lesson-14-6-part-2.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deltoid_muscle
http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/lisa3.htm
http://www.chanhassenfitnessrevolution.com/tempo-interval-training-part-2-isometric-training/
http://www.chanhassenfitnessrevolution.com/tempo-interval-training-part-2-isometric-training/
http://www.rethinkingcancer.org/resources/articles/posture-affects-health-and-more.php
http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPrinterFriendlyPub.aspx?P=GH1900
http://www.nismat.org/hot/olympics.html
http://harunyahya.com/en/works/9642/if-darwin-had-known-about/chapter/4674
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esophagus
http://ibstreatmentcenter.com/2011/02/digestion-basics-role-of-immune-system.html
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/GCSE_Science/The_Heart
CARDIAC MUSCLE
MUSCLE MOVEMENTS
Flexion
- This movement occurs when the joint bends, when this movement does occur the angle of the joint decreases.
Joint(s): Knee (Patella) and Elbow
Extension
- This muscle movement is the opposite to flexion, this occurs when a angle of a joint increases.
Joint(s): Knee (Patella) and Elbow
Abduction
- This movement occurs when moving a body part away from the body (e.g. raising your arms away from the body).
Adduction
- This movement is the opposite to abduction, it occurs when you move the body part towards the mid-line of the body (e.g. Dropping your arms by your side).
Rotation
- This movement occurs when you move a body part around it axis.
Supination
- This is the act of turning your palm upwards.
Pronation
- This is the act of turning your palm outwards.
Eversion
-

This is an act of turning the body part outwards.
Inversion
- This is an act of turning the body part inwards.
Planter Flexion
- This movement occurs when the foot bends to point downwards.
Dorsiflexion
- This movement occurs when the foot bends to point upwards.
Circumduction
- This occurs when a body part moves in a circular direction.
Reposition
- This happens when you release something from your grasp (e.g. spreading your fingers and thumb).
Opposition
- This is the opposition to reposition, it happens when you grasp an object.
http://www.medtrng.com/posturesdirection.htm
http://www.medtrng.com/posturesdirection.htm
http://www.medtrng.com/posturesdirection.htm
http://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Limbs/Planes-and-motions-diagrams
http://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Limbs/Planes-and-motions-diagrams
http://yiss-anatomy2010-11.wikispaces.com/Jake+and+Arnold
http://aboutspinabifida.blogspot.co.uk/2012/06/lesions-levels-sensory-and-mobility.html
The heart is responsible for pumping blood around the body. The heart is made up of two parts separated by the
septum
. Each side has lower (
Right and Left Ventricle
) and upper chambers (
Right and Left Atrium
). The
veins
connected to the heart are responsible for returning blood to the heart and the
arteries
are responsible for taking blood away from the heart. The heart a lot of blood vessels,
Pulmonary Vein
,
Pulmonary Arteries
,
The Small and Large Vena Cava
and the
Aorta
. The Aorta contains a large amount of smooth muscle and elastic tissue so it cope with
high blood pressure
pushed by the left ventricle.

The heart has important valves that play a big part in how the heart works by preventing the back flow of the blood and make sure the blood travels in one direction. The main valves are the
Biscupid Valve
,
Tricucpid valve
,
Semi Lunar valve
and the
Pulmonary Valve
.
How the Cardiac Muscle Works
Structure of the Cardiac Muscle
SMOOTH MUSCLE
SKELETAL MUSCLE
Smooth Muscles
are involuntary muscles found in the walls of hollow organs like the
stomach
,
the heart
,
bladder
or
intestines
. Smooth Muscles have many functions in the body, the smooth muscles in the bladder contract to eject urine out of the body. The smooth muscles in the intestines contract to push food throughout your body.
Smooth Muscle
Skeletal Muscles
are one of the major muscle types and are a type of
striated muscle
attached to the
skeleton
. The skeletal muscles main function is to contract to support the skeleton in movement. Skeletal muscles are
voluntary
because we have complete control of it's movement because of the signals the
brain
sends to the muscles.
Skeletal Muscle
http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/structure.html
http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/muscle1.html
BY LEONARDO
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