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BTEC Sport - LEVEL 3 - Muscular System
Transcript of BTEC Sport - LEVEL 3 - Muscular System
FUNCTIONS OF MUSCULAR SYSTEM
Skeletal Muscles are responsible for all
of human body parts. they provide the force by contacting actively at the expense of energy.
Why is it Voluntary?
They are under the control of the human will and all body
occurring by our will produced by skeletal muscles.
Antagonistic Muscle Pairs:
Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
Agonist: This muscle is a prime mover muscle that contracts to produce a movement.
Antagonist: A muscle that relaxes to let the agonist muscle to contract.
Example: When an individual is doing bicep curls, the dumbbell gets raised up towards the shoulder to the point where he/she can't raise it anymore, while this movement is happening the
(Agonist) is contracting to produce movement and the
(Antagonist) is relaxing to let the bicep contract.
The Bicep and Tricep switch roles when the arm is Extended.
Synergist: a muscle that aids the action of
basically a muscle which has the main responsibility for a particular movement.
Fixator: a muscle that acts as a
of one part of the body during movement of another muscle.
Example: when you do bicep curls the muscles that act as stabilizers for the movement of the arm (bicep) is the
obliques and abdominal
, with these muscles you would fall on the side with the dumbbell. The
aid the movement of the upper arm (Biceps and Triceps) while doing bicep curls.
Support the Skeleton
Isometric - This type of contraction only happens when there is no change in the length of the contracting muscle.
Eccentric - This type of contraction causes the muscle to expand as it contracts.
Concentric - This type of contraction is the opposite to the eccentric contraction, this causes the muscle to shorten as it contracts.
Muscle Contraction Examples
Eccentric Muscle Contraction
The simple example of a eccentric muscle contraction is when your doing
and you lower the dumbbell to maintain balance and posture. The muscle contracts when you lift the dumbbell (concentric contraction) and it also contracts when you lower it (eccentric contraction).
Concentric Muscle Contraction
A simple example of a concentric muscle contraction is when your doing
, the contraction occurs when you pull yourself up to the bar. This contraction also occurs when lifting a dumbbell (bicep curls).
Isometric Muscle Contraction
The bicep curl exercise is a good example for this muscle contraction, this contraction occurs when you keep the dumbbell lowered 90 degrees away from your shoulder (basically in the middle of a concentric and eccentric contraction), determining no change in change in the length of the contracting muscle (no movement). Another example will be
Slow Twitch Muscle Fiber Type 1
are red in color because their efficient use of
and high volumes of
. These muscle fibers are used in muscular endurance & aerobic activities such as the 5,000m run, 10,000m run or marathons/triathlons.
Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber Type 2a
are red in color. These fibers are used in muscular endurance based exercises like bench press or push ups. They contain a large amounts of myoglobin and
Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber Type 2b
are white in color because they contain a low amount of myoglobin and mitochondria. These fibers are used for short duration, high bursts of power exercises such as the 100m sprint or the barbell lift.
The definition for
posture is a position or attitude of the limbs or body.
includes supporting your spine, keeping your arms up, keeping you head up and holding back your shoulders.
in the muscles record the tension and size of the muscle and provide the
with important information about the position of the body parts, this then maintains posture. Muscles involved with posture are called
. Tunic muscles hold your body parts in place by using isometric contractions.
The amount heat the human body produces depends on the weight, diet and how active they are daily. To maintain a constant
, the body needs to
. When muscles contract to cause the bones to move, heat is generated. When your body is exposed to cold air your muscles contract to maintain normal body temperature but when your body is exposed to a lot of heat the muscles redistribute the heat to the skin and produce sweat to regulate body temperature.
SUPPORT THE SKELETON
aids the skeleton in
. Muscles are connected to the bones with a extremely strong material called
. Muscles are a kind of tissue which contain a lot of
Throughout your body there is a particular muscle tissue called
which are attached to the bones. When you want to move, your brain sends signals to the skeletal muscles to tell them to adjust the position of the skeleton therefore supporting it in movement and stability.
is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed. The
Human Digestive System
is responsible for extracting
from food, it is also responsible for absorbing
. The Jaw and Tongue muscles break down food into small pieces. The muscles in the throat then guides the food down the
. The stomach muscles then churn the pieces of food, breaking them down into smaller pieces then mixes it into
. The muscle contractions of the
then guide the food through the digestive tract.
How the Heart works
travels to the
. The blood then takes oxygen from the lungs and travels towards the
. The blood then travels towards the
. The blood then travels through the
semi lunar valve
. the blood then travels out of the aorta giving the body oxygen. The de-oxygenated blood then travels towards the
. The right atrium contracts and pushes the blood through the
and into the
. The blood then travels towards the lungs to repeats the process.
is when the blood constantly circulates due to the pumping action of the heart, which sends blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen, and then pumps it to the rest of the body.
- This movement occurs when the joint bends, when this movement does occur the angle of the joint decreases.
Joint(s): Knee (Patella) and Elbow
- This muscle movement is the opposite to flexion, this occurs when a angle of a joint increases.
Joint(s): Knee (Patella) and Elbow
- This movement occurs when moving a body part away from the body (e.g. raising your arms away from the body).
- This movement is the opposite to abduction, it occurs when you move the body part towards the mid-line of the body (e.g. Dropping your arms by your side).
- This movement occurs when you move a body part around it axis.
- This is the act of turning your palm upwards.
- This is the act of turning your palm outwards.
This is an act of turning the body part outwards.
- This is an act of turning the body part inwards.
- This movement occurs when the foot bends to point downwards.
- This movement occurs when the foot bends to point upwards.
- This occurs when a body part moves in a circular direction.
- This happens when you release something from your grasp (e.g. spreading your fingers and thumb).
- This is the opposition to reposition, it happens when you grasp an object.
The heart is responsible for pumping blood around the body. The heart is made up of two parts separated by the
. Each side has lower (
Right and Left Ventricle
) and upper chambers (
Right and Left Atrium
connected to the heart are responsible for returning blood to the heart and the
are responsible for taking blood away from the heart. The heart a lot of blood vessels,
The Small and Large Vena Cava
. The Aorta contains a large amount of smooth muscle and elastic tissue so it cope with
high blood pressure
pushed by the left ventricle.
The heart has important valves that play a big part in how the heart works by preventing the back flow of the blood and make sure the blood travels in one direction. The main valves are the
Semi Lunar valve
How the Cardiac Muscle Works
Structure of the Cardiac Muscle
are involuntary muscles found in the walls of hollow organs like the
. Smooth Muscles have many functions in the body, the smooth muscles in the bladder contract to eject urine out of the body. The smooth muscles in the intestines contract to push food throughout your body.
are one of the major muscle types and are a type of
attached to the
. The skeletal muscles main function is to contract to support the skeleton in movement. Skeletal muscles are
because we have complete control of it's movement because of the signals the
sends to the muscles.