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The Romans

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Rachel MacMillan

on 28 February 2014

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Transcript of The Romans

Ancient Rome
The Romans
Roman Roads
Roman Mosaics
Roman Foods
Roman Villas
Roman Soldiers
Making life size Roman soldiers.

Body Armour
Leather strips
Sword holder

The Roman Legionary soldiers usually had a brown leather strap (balteus) over there shoulder which held their swords by their side.

Sword and Sword Holder

The Roman soldiers had leather strips hanging from their belts.
These leather straps were used to protect the soldier’s lower body and had heavy weights at the bottom of them to keep them in place during battle.

Leather Strips (Cingulum)

The Roman soldiers wore sandals into battle, made from very thick leather.
They were studded with nails for marching on rough ground or for using on the enemy when they had fallen.
The studs also helped the leather last longer.

Sandals (Caligae)

The body armour protected the soldier’s upper body area.
It was made of overlapping iron strips which were all hooked together.
They were made in strips so that although the soldiers were protected, they were still able to bend and move freely.

Body Armour (Lorica Segmentata)
Underneath their body armour, the soldiers wore a linen undershirt and tunic made of wool.
The longer the soldier’s tunic was showed how important he was in the Roman army.
The scarf was worn to stop the armour from cutting into their neck.

Cheek pieces

Back guard

Front guard

Made of metal with cheek pieces protecting the head.

At the back, it had a guard that protected the soldier’s neck from sword blows.
At the front, the helmet has a bit that sticks out which was meant to block the sword blows from the soldiers face.



Leather strips

Body Armour


Sword holder


Helmet (Cassis)
Tunic (Focale)
The Romans made mosaics in every place that they conquered and we can still see some of them today. In England, just 60 years ago, archaeologists found a huge roman mosaic which is now in the Novium museum.

Only the richest Romans could afford these designers so poorer Romans just used the same designs over and over again. You would often see the same designs in poor Roman’s villas.

Some places in Rome used the mosaics in a different way and used them to tell someone something.

Then they placed small tiles on top of the mortar to make the colourful design or pattern, these were call tesserae.

To make the mosaics on the walls and floors, the Romans paid expert mosaic designers to draw a plan of the a design for the mosaic.
The mosaic designer would then cover a small area of the wall or floor with mortar.


Most Romans believed that the more colourful their mosaics were then the more people thought they were very rich.

The mosaics on the walls and floors showed images of many different things, for example, a scene of everyday roman life or a fantastic image from Roman myths.

The Romans lived in houses called villas, where the walls and floors were covered with mosaics. They didn’t have fancy wallpaper and carpets like we do today!

Roman Mosaics
Why was only a small area covered?
What did the Romans eat?

The rich Romans ate their food in a very different way to what we do today. Instead of sitting in chairs around a table, the rich Romans would lay on sloping couches around small square tables.
Only the servants and children were allowed to eat on a chair.

Breakfast - eaten in the master’s bedroom – usually a slice of bread or wheat pancake with dates and honey. They also drunk wine.

Lunch (11.00am) - light meal of bread, cheese and possibly some meat.

Main meal (main focus of the day) - could take between 1 and 8 hours!

Supper (before bedtime) - bread and fruit.

A normal Roman day:

Throughout their meals, the Romans’ servants would wash their hands between each course because they used their fingers to eat most of their food.
If they couldn’t use their fingers, for example, when eating soup, the Romans used special spoons.






The rich Romans would compete against each other to make their meals as complicated as they could, and some of them thought this was more important than the actual taste of the meal!
For example, one of these meals included a chicken stuffed inside a duck, the duck stuffed into a goose, the goose stuffed into a pig and then the pig stuffed into a cow; which was cooked altogether.

Food was used in Roman times to show how rich you were.
The richer Romans would host a banquet and invite other rich guests to show their social standing.
The bigger and better it was then the more wealthy you were considered.

The traditional Roman dinner was the same as the way we have dinner today, in 3 courses:
Appetiser/starter - eggs, fish, shellfish or raw veg.
Main Meal

Dessert - fruit cakes, tarts and pastries.
Main course - cooked vegetables and meats.
Appetiser/starter - eggs, fish, shellfish or raw veg.
Building the roads –
Step 5

Building the roads –
Step 3

Building the roads –
Step 1

The Roman roads were always built in straight lines and on flat land.

How did they build the roads?

The Romans needed proper roads so that all their soldiers and baggage could travel around Britain, connecting the Roman forts and important towns.
The main way of travel by Romans was on horseback, driving carts pulled by oxen or walking, so the roads needed to be good for all these ways of travelling.

Building the roads
Step 4

Building the roads
Step 2

The person in charge of building the road, called the surveyor used a GROMA to make the road straight.

The Romans decided to build their own roads, which were the first real roads to be built in Britain ever.

Who do you think they got to build the roads?

Roman Roads

When the Romans invaded Britain, they found that the roads were just mud tracks or grass tracks that went up and down hills for no reason. They were useless to travel on.

After the Romans invaded Britain

Why did the Romans build the road in a straight line?

In Roman times, how do you think they made the roads perfectly straight?

Drainage ditches

After the actual road was built, the Romans knew that the road would stay in a good condition if it didn’t get wet and muddy.
So, they always dug ditches at either side of the road to hold all the water that ran off the roads.

Building the roads
Step 6

Wealthy Romans had a villa for two reasons:

To escape the bustle of the city
It was also a farmhouse were slaves worked the land and produced crops which brought their master wealth.

Why did the Romans have villas?

A Roman villa is a villa that was built or lived in during the Roman Empire.
A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class.
Wealthy Romans often owned a house in the country as well as one in the town.
Poorer Roman citizens lived in flats in busy towns these flats were not as nice.

What is a Roman Villa?

Why did wealthy Romans own a villas?
What are some of the things the Romans did in their villas?
Name three rooms in a Roman villa and say what the Romans might have used this room for.
Do you think Roman villas were extravagant? Explain why you think this.
Would you have liked to live in a Roman villa? Why/Why not?


Many people had shrines in their houses with a figure of their favourite god. They believed it was important to keep the gods happy with gifts or statues.

Owners of the villa would often invite guests round to eat and relax
Owners of the villa and their guests led very comfortable lives.
When entertaining, a wealthy family could serve a meal with eight or nine courses!
Food would be served such as doormouse, pheasant or partridge

Entertaining guests

Richer Romans decorated their houses with mosaics on the floor.

Poorer Romans lived in blocks of flats called insulae

What were Roman Villas like?

People ate in a half lying position scooping up food with bread or their fingers.
They did not use knives and forks.
People who were full sometimes left the room to make themselves vomit, then came back and carried on eating – yeuch!!

What did the Romans do when Entertaining?

Villas were usually decorated with expensive floor or wall mosaics
The used wall paintings called frescos to decorate the villas.
The villas were often big and had lots of different rooms
Many villas also had a hypocaust system which was like a central heating system.
A room as a shrine to the gods

What was a Roman Villa like?

Prayer room to worship the Gods

Courtyard with pool and garden called peristylum

Lots of bedrooms



Slave living area.

Storage rooms

Study room

A reception room

Dining room called

Meeting room called ‘atrium

Grand entrance hall

Rooms in a roman villa

Pick the best parts of your Roman Villa and use persuasive language to describe them in one short sentence.

For example,
“Beautiful roman mosaics designed by the best mosaic makers in Rome.”

What other persuasive words can you think of?

Your task is to become a Roman estate agent.

This means your have to try and sell your Roman Villa by making it sound as attractive as possible.

Describes in one paragraph the main features of the Roman Villa.

For example,

The rooms in the Villa
The extra features
Types of servant
Where the roman villa is
How big it is



You are going to work in groups to create a “for sale” sign for your Roman Villa.




Short Description

Key Selling Points
















Word Bank

Roman Villa Task
Your Task...
Key Selling Points
Short Description
The Roman Empire
Roman Numerals
Roman Numerals

Don’t repeat a letter more than three times in a row.

So 4 is written not as IIII but as IV (one before five).

And 6 would be written as VI (one after five).

The Rules for Writing Roman Numerals

Arabic Numerals are the numbers that we use today.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0
Roman Numerals are used today, but not in everyday writing.
I, V, X, L, C, D, M
Roman Numerals don’t have a symbol for zero.

Roman vs. Arabic Numerals

Romans used them for trading and commerce.
When Romans learned to write they needed a way to write their numbers.
Roman Numerals are still used today in many different ways.

Roman Numerals - Past and Present

Draw a bingo grid like this…

Write some examples in your Roman books –

17 = 22 = 29 = 30 =

35 = 50 = 40 =

44 = 49 = 58 = 60 =

Can you convert these numbers to Roman Numerals?

How are Roman numerals used today?


30=XXX 35=XXXV

50=L so 40=XL

44=XLIV 49=XLIX 58=LVIII 60=LX

Were you correct?

C – stands for 100
D – stands for 500
M – stands for 1000

I – stands for 1
V – stands for 5
X – stands for 10
L – stands for 50

The Basics

15 = XV
16 = XVI
17 = XVII
18 = XVIII
19 = XIX
20 = XX
21 = XXI

8 = VIII
9 = IX
10 = X
11 = XI
12 = XII
13 = XIII
14 = XIV

1 = I
2 = II
3 = III
4 = IV
5 = V
6 = VI
7 = VII

Use these numbers to make your bingo cards

15 = XV
16 = XVI
17 = XVII
18 = XVIII
19 = XIX
20 = XX
21 = XXI

8 = VIII
9 = IX
10 = X
11 = XI
12 = XII
13 = XIII
14 = XIV

1 = I
2 = II
3 = III
4 = IV
5 = V
6 = VI
7 = VII

Let’s have a go…

Can you think of ways that Roman Numerals are used today?
Roman Weapons
Legionary Soldiers
Each legion had a pole with a golden eagle.
Each century had its own flag called a "standard".

To lose the standard or the eagle would bring great shame to the soldiers involved.
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