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Putting Points and Percentages in the Past

Presentation tool for a variety of state and national conferences, first utilized at OLMA, 2013.
by

Sandy Bean

on 4 October 2015

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Transcript of Putting Points and Percentages in the Past

Putting
Points and Percentages
in the Past:

Making the transition
to Standards-based grading
in the language arts classroom
Sandy Bean and Shannon Saunders
Mayfield Middle School
Cleveland, OH

sbean@mayfieldschools.org
@sandrajsbean on twitter
ssaunders@mayfieldschools.org
Examining our beliefs
Let's look at some of the beliefs that may guide our practices on assessment and reporting.
For whom is this presentation designed?
Teachers (or the administrators of teachers) who are currently using points and percentages to calculate grades and are interested in an alternative method.

Anyone who is looking to make a change in their grading practices.

Teachers or administrators who have recently been introduced to standards-based grading and are interested in seeing examples of what it looks like in another classroom or district.
Why change the way you're grading?
The big ideas behind standards-based grading
Based on the work of celebrated educational researchers such as Robert Marzano, Thomas Guskey, Doug Reeves, Ken O'Connor and Rick Wormeli

1. Grades should accurately reflect student progress toward a standard.

2. The purpose of reporting grades is to communicate to student, parents, and other stakeholders what a student knows or is able to do.

3. Students learn differently and at different rates.
Additional resource information available in your packet
Grades should accurately reflect student progress towards the standards.
What happens in classrooms that hinders this practice?
The purpose of reporting grades is to communicate to students, parents, and other stakeholders what a student knows or is able to do.
Grades are not supposed to be a system of reward and punishment, yet they often seem to work this way.

Can a student explain to you the meaning behind an 88% vs. a 93%?

Does a 16/20 allow a student to understand where they are in terms of their understanding of a specific content standard?
Students learn differently and at different rates.
What are we doing in our classrooms that supports this belief?
What are we doing in our classroom that contradicts this belief?
What It Looks Like (pg. 1)
Common Core Standard
Learning Goal(s)
Learning Scale/Levels of Understanding
What are we doing when students don't know?
What It Looks Like
Common Core Standard
Learning Goal(s)
RL 7.6 Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different narrators or characters in a text .
I can differentiate among the terms character, author, and narrator.

I can differentiate among the five narrative modes (first, second, third objective, third limited, third omniscient).

I can identify the perspectives of characters as shared by the narrator.

I can apply my understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of each narrative mode in order to analyze why an author may have chosen one point of view over another.

I can analyze the changes that a shift in point of view or perspective would have on a text.
Assess
Teach
Assess
Teach
Assess
Teach
Summatively Assess
Learning Scales and Levels of Understanding (pg. 6)
Advanced (4)
Proficient (3)
Developing (2)
Beginning (1)
(No Knowledge - 0)
Student has mastered the standard to the degree that she can apply the skill or knowledge to new situations or using more complex texts.
Student has demonstrated proficiency of what the standard requires. She can perform competently on multiple occasions and without help.
Student has NOT independently demonstrated proficiency of what the standard requires but does show
partial understanding that suggests progress.
Performance is inconsistent, and some misconceptions or errors still exist.
Student is struggling and unable to demonstrate proficiency of what the standard requires, even with help. Student has only a limited understanding of the basics or simpler concepts involved.
Levels for the Standard
(pg. 14)
Reporting (pgs. 2-5)
Assessment Type Coding Weight
Summative 4, 3, 2, 1 1

Formative 4, 3, 2, 1 0

Checkpoint P, NP 0

Classwork
Homework E, S, NI, U, Z 0
Teach, Assess, Teach, Assess...
This We Believe calls for "varied and ongoing assessments that advance learning as well as measure it".
Day One-activate prior knowledge; conduct an engaging mini-lesson on terms

Day Two-entrance slip (checkpoint) on terms: Beginning Level Knowledge

Proficient Not Proficient

Targeted homework
(flashcards, foldable, comic strips)

Day Three-mini lesson on identifying the narrative mode of a given passage with in-class practice
Teach, Assess, Teach, Assess...
Day Four-checkpoint on identifying point of view of a passage:
Level Two Knowledge
Proficient (8) Not Proficient (14)
Move to "Level 3" work.
Read a short story and analyze use of point of view and the effect on the story.
Why?
Dialogue vs. Narration First, Second, Third Thirds
(4) (3) (7)
color-coding of dialogue and narration; revision of checkpoint
complete a graphic organizer on pronouns; revision of checkpoint
generate a list of "signal words" that indicate the narrator is inside a character's head; track these within passages to revise checkpoint
Day Five-Differentiated Learning Opportunities
Teach, Assess, Teach, Assess...
Day 6-Continue differentiated learning opportunities based on yesterday's observations
Proficient at Level 2
Still not proficient at Level 2
(7) Story work and analysis

(6) Continued story work and analysis

(2) Enrichment: Level Four Performance
Why?
Thirds Observation vs. Inference
(5) (2)
signal words and passage identification
handout on this skill, borrowed from a science teacher
Day 7-Entire class is now practicing at a Level 3, as we keep the summative in mind (pgs. 15-19)
Checkpoints are used to determine readiness for summative assessment
Feedback for Students and Parents
Beginning
Student can differentiate among the terms character, author, and narrator. Student can define the five narrative modes (first, second, third objective, third limited, third omniscient).
Developing
Student can identify the perspectives of characters as shared by the narrator. Student can consistently identify the narrative mode of texts and justify answer.
Proficient - Level 3
Student can apply an understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of each narrative mode in order to analyze why an author may have chosen one point of view over another. Student can analyze the changes that a shift in point of view or perspective would have on a text.
Advanced
Student can evaluate the effectiveness of an author's choice of narrative mode and/or point of view and analyze how these changes would affect overall meaning. Student can manipulate narrative mode and perspective to reach a desired end.
Rick Wormeli: Defining Mastery
Rick Wormeli: Re-dos, Re-takes,
and Do-overs
Consider this...
A variety of grading practices are based on tradition rather than science.
Five Obstacles to Grading Reform
Obstacle 1: Grades should provide the basis for differentiation
Do we "select" or "develop" talent?

Obstacle 2: Grade distribution should resemble a bell-shaped curve
See the changes in our distribution
Consider this...
Obstacle 3: Grades should be based on students' standing among classmates
Should they be compared to each other, or to a standard?

Obstacle 4: Poor grades prompt students to try harder
Shutting down or promoting learning?

Obstacle 5: Students should receive one grade for each subject or course
Are there multiple aspects to your class?
(Thomas R. Guskey, 2011)
Why Language Arts?
Where Do I Start?
1. Stop grading assignments and start assessing standards/learning goals based on agreed-upon criterion (yes, they will still do assignments that matter).

2. Begin assessing students more frequently, and respond to these assessments with immediate differentiation.

3. Eliminate all practice, formative data, and rewards/punishments for compliance from your grades (by weighting them zero.)
Rick Wormeli: Defining Mastery

What will we tolerate as evidence of learning?
This process is akin to
"Mastery Learning",
first defined by Benjamin Bloom in 1971 as a process of feedback and corrective procedures for use in the classroom.
In this model, high-quality initial group instruction is followed by formative assessment, "corrective activities",
and additional "parallel" formative assessments which guide instruction and push students to a "high level of achievement" (Guskey, 2010).
When used correctly, this system allows Students to understand where they are and where they need to go.
Standards-based grading communicated with the levels of understanding system is student-friendly.

This aligns with grades as communication and content as the basis for these grades.
Watch Rachel, an average student, first discuss a formative grade on an expository essay (she is seeing the evaluation for the first time since submitting the essay). The rubric can be found on pages 22-23. What does she need to do, and what happens next?
Notice how her attitude toward the lower levels of understanding is not negative.
She knows she can do it again
(see page 24).
Lexi then discusses the "fairness" of a 2.75 level on understanding on a math test.
(pg. 2)
checkpoint design
(pgs. 8-13)
Full transcript