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Text Structure

Patterns of Organiztion in text

mary jo rossi

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of Text Structure

Being involved in after school sports and clubs is not a right. It is a privilege. Therefore, students have to meet eligibility requirements. If students have any “D”s or “F”s, they are not allowed to play. Also, if students have behavior issues in class, they cannot be on the team or in the club. Lastly, students need to keep good attendance. If students miss school, they most certainly cannot come to practice. Being on a team is a lot of responsibility. If students are not proving to be responsible, they will not be permitted to be in clubs or teams.


After a long day at school, I came home and watched “Cops,” my favorite show. During the commercial breaks, I got up and made a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. I took the bread out of the cabinet, spread the jelly and peanut butter on the bread, and stuck the two pieces together. I enjoyed that sandwich as I watched the rest of “Cops.”

Peanut Butter and Jelly

Football and baseball are two of the most popular sports in the country. They have many things in common. For one, they are both team sports, and they both require players to advance to an end or “home” point on the playing field. However, football requires players to carry the ball to the end zone, whereas in baseball, it is the defending team that controls the ball while it is in play.

Popular Sports

Read each passage.
Determine how the text is organized:
cause and effect, compare and contrast, chronological order, sequence / process writing, problem and solution, or spatial / descriptive.
Write your answer.


Patterns of Organization

Text Structure

Compare and contrast
Sequence or process writing
Problem and solution
Spatial / descriptive writing
Cause and effect


The gym room at the high school down the street from me is huge. Along the North and South walls are bleachers that fold up during gym. Coach pulls the bleachers out for big games. At the end of the East and West walls are basketball hoops. The ceilings are very high and at the top of the gym are many large windows. The windows go all the way around the gym. There are also ropes that are either tucked away or hang from the ceilings in the middle of the gym. The ropes intimidate some students. That gym is my favorite place.

The Gym Room

Many students have been getting low scores on tests and this is upsetting to parents, teachers, and students. Low test scores show that teachers aren’t teaching effectively or that students aren’t learning. Either way it’s an issue with which we are concerned. I propose the following: any teacher who is giving a test should open up their classroom for study groups the night and morning before the test. Maybe by giving students extra opportunities to study, we can improve students’ test scores.

Low Test Scores

Believe it or not, as important as it is, many students do not know how to study for a test. Well, studying for a test is easy. The first thing that you must do is take out your notes. Open your notes up to the section that you are supposed to review. Read what you wrote in your notebook. When you are done, close your notebook and see if you remember the ideas that you were studying. Still don’t remember? Open your notebook back up a try again.

Studying for a Test

One day while walking home from school, he found a magic blanket. When he covered himself with it, he turned invisible. At first he used his power to play all kinds of tricks on people. He’d turn invisible and hide things, or move a cup when someone was pouring juice to make a mess. He had a lot of fun. But then one day, he found that he couldn’t take the blanket off. He was just stuck invisible. He quit playing tricks on people, hoping that he’d be able to take the blanket off and rejoin society, but it didn’t work. He is still invisible somewhere right now, and he is very lonely.

The Magic Blanket

Ask, “what is the author doing in this paragraph?”
Put it in your own words.
Use the graphic organizer to see if the info fits.
Look for signal words.

Tips to Identify

How information in a passage is organized

We will study six common patterns:

Cause and Effect
Compare and Contrast
Problem and Solution
Sequence / Process
Spatial / Descriptive

What is Text Structure?

Don’t confuse with chronological.
Won’t have a beginning, middle, and end.
Time won’t progress much.



They performed poorly on the test.

Students did not learn the material.

An action and its results are explained.

Cause and Effect

Jack fell down and broke his crown.

Jack and Jill ran up the hill to fetch a pail of water.

ALL stories are told chronologically.

Jill came tumbling after.

Information is organized in order of time.

Chrono = time Logic = order



My bedroom

Racial is to race as spatial is to space.

Describes something in order of space.
Describes how something looks.
TIME DOESN’T PASS in these passages.

Spatial / Descriptive Writing

Two windows on the west Wall

A television across from the bed.

A bed in the middle.

A closet by the TV

Don’t confuse with cause and effect.
It is presented as a PROBLEM.

Property is being spray painted.



A problem and answer are suggested.

Problem and Solution

Require a license to buy spray paint.

Does not occur at a specific time.

Don’t confuse with chronological!

1. Crack a few eggs.

Information is listed step-by-step.
Explains how to do it or how it happens.

Sequence / Process Writing

2. Add cheese.

3. Cook on one side.

4. Flip omelet.

2. Oranges have more juice.

1. People don’t eat orange skins.

2. Both have skin.

1. Both are fruits.


Apples & Oranges


Tells how two things are similar and different.

Compare and Contrast

first, second, third
before, on (date), not long after
at the same time, finally
Signal Words
Like, unlike, but, in contrast, on the other hand, however, both, also, too, as well as, different from, same as, as opposed to, instead of, either... or, not only...but also
Therefore, so, this led, as a result, because, if... then, nevertheless, in order to, may be due to, consequently, for this reason, thus, when
Signal words
Such as, for example, for instance, most important, in front, beside, near, to begin with , to illustrate, another, in addition, also, in fact, characteristics
Sequence/Process Writing
first, second, next, then, initially, before, after when, finally, preceding, following, now, soon
question is, dilemma is.., to solve this, one answer is, on reason for the problem is
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