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Immune System Project By: Iqra Dada

Iqra Dada

on 3 February 2011

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Transcript of Leukemia

LEUKEMIA History of Leukemia Leukemia was not officially diagnosed until 1845, when John Hughes Benett diagnosed it in Edinburgh.
Other European physicians in the 19th century observed that their patients had abnormally high levels of white blood cells, and they called the disease “weisses blut,” meaning “white blood.”
The term “leukemia” that is used now comes from the Greek words “leukos” and “heima,” also meaning “white blood”.
In 1913, four types of leukemia were classified: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and erythroleukemia.
In 1970, it was first confirmed that some patients could be cured of leukemia, and by the 1980s and 1990s the cure rates for leukemia were around 70%. OUtbreaks! In the 1990's, an unusually high number of children diagnosed with leukemia in the small town of Fallon, Nevada. Unknown Cause.
Other cities with clusters of leukemia patients include: Maryvale, Arizona; Woburn, Massachusettes; as well as cities in Germany and Puerto Rico.
An estimated 44,790 new cases of leukemia will be diagnosed in the United States in 2009.
There is no known cure for leukemia yet. Epidemiology Symptoms Course through the body 1. The body starts producing more white cells than it needs.

2. Many of these extra white cells do not mature normally, yet they tend to live well beyond their normal life span.

3. Despite their vast numbers, these leukemic cells are unable to fight infection the way normal white blood cells do.

4. As they accumulate, they interfere with vital organ functions, including the production of healthy blood cells.

5. Eventually the body does not have enough red cells to supply oxygen, enough platelets to ensure proper clotting, or enough normal white cells to fight infection, making people with leukemia anemic and susceptible to bruising, bleeding, and infection. affect on
body systems Leukemia is a malignant disease (cancer) of the bone marrow and blood.
Leukemia affects the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and lymphatic system.
The circulatory system is affected because the red blood cells are crowded by the excessive white blood cells. Anemia, a deficiency of red blood cells, develops in virtually all persons with leukemia.
Leukemia can sometimes spread to the spinal cord and brain (Central Nervous System) as well.
Some cancer drugs that are given to patients are cardiotoxic, or damaging to the heart. Treatments: The options are watchful waiting,
chemotherapy, targeted therapy,
biological therapy, radiation therapy,
and stem cell transplant. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Some anticancer drugs can be taken by mouth.
Most are given by IV injection (injected into a vein) through a catheter. One end of this thin, flexible tube is placed in a large vein, often in the upper chest.
Drugs are injected into the catheter, rather than directly into a vein, to avoid the discomfort of repeated injections and injury to the skin.
To reach leukemia cells in the central nervous system, doctors use intrathecal chemotherapy in which anticancer drugs are injected directly into the cerebrospinal fluid (in the brain). Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy for leukemia may be given in two ways. For some patients, the doctor may direct the radiation to one specific area of the body where there is a collection of leukemia cells, such as the spleen or testicles. Other leukemia patients may receive radiation that is directed to the whole body. This type of radiation therapy, called total-body irradiation, usually is given before a bone marrow transplant. Biological Therapy Biological therapy is a form of leukemia treatment that involves treatment with substances that affect the immune system's response to cancer. This type of leukemia treatment improves the body's natural defenses against cancer. Biological therapy for leukemia is given by injection into a vein. Stem Cell Transplantation Some patients with leukemia have stem cell transplantation. A stem cell transplant allows a leukemia patient to be treated with high doses of drugs, radiation, or both. The high doses destroy both leukemia cells and normal blood cells in the bone marrow. Later, the patient receives healthy stem cells through a flexible tube that is placed in a large vein in the neck or chest area. New blood cells develop from the transplanted stem cells. Targeted Therapy Targeted therapy is a type of medication that blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for carcinogenesis (the process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells) and tumor growth, rather than by simply interfering with rapidly dividing cells (e.g. with traditional chemotherapy). Targeted cancer therapies may be more effective than current treatments and less harmful to normal cells. Long Term Prognosis Developing new cancers, increased risk of infection, heart problems, and sexual development problems are just some of the possible side effects leukemia survivors should be prepared for. Sideaffects can stay forever.
Lowered resistance to infection is another side effect of cancer treatments. Chemotherapy uses medications to kill cancer cells, but they also kill healthy cells, weakening patients' bodies and making them less effective at fighting off infection.
Cardiovascular side effects are another serious side effect of treatments for leukemia. Cancer survivors who have been treated with chemotherapy or radiation have a much higher risks of developing serious cardiac problems.
One more side effect of leukemia treatment is problems with sexual development. Radiation in men can affect the testosterone levels and cause a delayed or an accelerated puberty and radiation in the area of the brain.
Another sexual development side effect is that it can be harder for cancer survivors to produce children because of the effects of the treatment on their bodies, radiation can cause damage to reproductive organs and/or the brain. Lasting Effects: Cure vs. Reoccurrence Five-year survival varies from 15–70%, and relapse rate varies from 78–33%, depending on subtype.
In 2000, approximately 256,000 children and adults around the world developed a form of leukemia, and 209,000 died from it.[29] This represents about 3% of the almost seven million deaths due to cancer that year, and about 0.35% of all deaths from any cause. Survival From 1999 to 2005, the five-year relative survival rates overall were:
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL): 66.3 percent overall; 90.9 percent for children under 5
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): 78.8 percent
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): 23.4 percent overall; 60.2 percent for children under 15
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): 53.3 percent the cancer of blood BY: IQra DaDa & Lila Jensen How the immune system fights leukemia Considering the fact that leukemia is the cancer of the basic cells that make up the immune system (WBCs), the immune system has trouble fighting it's own cancer its own cancer.
Although immune system disorders usually can't be prevented, you can help your immune system stay stronger and fight illnesses by staying informed, eating healthy, washing your hands, getting excercise, and getting regular medical checkups. Pictures healthy bone marrow cancerous bone marrow Dark purple dots are lymphocytes (white blood cells) About 245,000 people in the United States are affected with some form of leukemia, including those that have achieved remission or cure. Links http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hematologic/leukemia/ http://www.medicinenet.com/leukemia/article.htm http://www.webmd.com/cancer/tc/leukemia-topic-overview http://www.lls.org/all_page?item_id=7026
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