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BALANCED LITERACY & Lucy Calkins
Transcript of BALANCED LITERACY & Lucy Calkins
The Lucy Calkins Writing Program
originated in California in 1996 (California Department of Education, 1996; Honig, 1996).
Balanced Literacy was born in response to low reading scores on a national examination. A new curriculum, called Balanced Reading Curriculum was formed. Later, the name was changed to address elements of reading and writing to Balanced Literacy.
Originally, Balanced Literacy focused on presenting both skills-based teaching and meaning-based teaching during separate literacy blocks.
Today, Balanced Literacy involves more comprehensive and complex instruction.
Balanced Literacy is not a prescribed...
set of materials, or
Rationale of Balanced Literacy
Balanced Literacy Includes:
involves both the decoding and encoding of our alphabetic symbol system, so students can make meaning from what they're reading
example of a Word Study curriculum is Words Their Way
Interactive Read Alouds
teacher reads text aloud to the whole class and stops at planned points to ask questions that prompt students to respond
teacher reads an enlarged text aloud.
students participate by reading along, using strategies when they encounter difficulties.
teacher models his/her thinking as he/she reads
responsibility is "shared" between students and teacher, although the teacher reads the majority
teacher meets with a small group that needs to work on a specific strategy, or the students may have similar reading levels
each student has a copy of the text
teacher explicitly teaches strategies
Independent Reading/Reader's Workshop
students read their text at their independent reading level
students are working independently or in partnerships
teachers are working one on one, and with small groups, teaching them strategies that will improve the quality of their reading
students may respond to text through writing, discussing, or drawing
Presentation by Kerry Wanamaker
Professor Briana Pascoal
A Little Bit of History...
Balanced Literacy is...
a philosophical orientation that assumes reading and writing achievement are developed through instruction and support in multiple environments by using various approaches that differ by level of teacher support and child control
a philosophy for reading and writing instruction that includes the best elements of both systematic and explicit phonics instruction, with a whole language base
intentionally delivered instruction to help students who can read, write, listen, and speak with increasing complexity across several disciplines
a program that includes community, home, and library involvement as well as structured classroom plans and the use of activities (Read Alouds, Guided Reading, Shared Reading, and Independent Reading and Writing)
Whole Language + more Systematic Phonics Approaches to reading instruction = Balanced Instruction
A balanced approach to learning to read and write is essential.
Nothing is better than reading and writing to develop reading and writing.
Conversing with others to generate ideas is fundamental in learning to read.
Most reading should be done in texts which students will have high accuracy and good comprehension. This will help build fluency, stamina, and confidence.
Comprehension, word study, fluency, and writing strategies should be taught and practiced.
Interactive Read Alouds
Shared Writing or Interactive Writing
Writing Workshop/Writing process
teacher models writing in front of the students while verbalizing what he/she is thinking
the students participate by writing the text
the students read after the message is written
focuses on building up the students' independence in the visual sources of information
the teacher composes a variety of texts with his/her students
teacher models his/her thinking as he/she writes
students participate by listening to the teacher's thought process
focuses on building up the students' independence in meaning and structure
teacher assists the students in discovering what they want to say and how to say it with meaning, clarity, style, etc...
allows the students to write without teacher's assistance
students take responsibility for the writing process
Lucy Calkin's Writing Curriculum
Who is Lucy Calkins?
Lucy Calkins is the Founding Director of the Teachers College Reading & Writing Project at Columbia University
Lucy Calkins works closely with policy makers, superintendents, district leaders, and school principals in regard to educational reform
She is the author of ten books, including the popular classroom materials Units of Study for Primary Writing and Units of Study for Teaching Writing, The Art of Teaching Writing, One to One, and The Art of Teaching Reading
Lucy Calkins is the Richard Robinson Professor of Children's Literature at Teachers College, where she leads the Literacy Specialist program
For more information visit:
Lucy Calkins: Units of Study for Primary Writing (K-2) contains:
Introduction Book: The Nuts and Bolts of Writing
7 Units of Study books:
Launching the Writing Workshop
Small Moments: Personal Narrative Writing
Writing for Readers: Teaching Skills and Strategies
The Craft of Revision
Authors as Mentors
Nonfiction Writing: Procedures and Reports
Poetry: Powerful Thoughts in Tiny Packages
Resources for Primary Writing - CD-ROM
About the Session Structure...
The introduction shares the thinking behind each session and explains its place in the larger curriculum.
Minilessons are ten minute long lessons that introduce, teach, and apply the strategy or concept to be learned.
Time to Confer
Time to confer provides tips and ideas for meaningful one-on-one conferences.
After-the-Workshop share offers strategies that help you elicit reflections from students as they share their work.
Assessment guidelines help you monitor and document what students have accomplished.
Each Unit of Study contains 15 sessions
Each session provides a detailed description of one day's teaching
"Minilessons are rather like the hurdles in the midst of a football game or like the gathering of art students around one person's easel. Each of these gatherings contains a mix of informality, clarity,
~ Lucy Calkins
"Although conferences appear to be warm, informal conversations, they are in fact highly principled teaching interactions, carefully designed to move writers along learning pathways."
~ Lucy Calkins
Each Minilesson is divided into four components:
1. Connection - children access prior knowledge
2. Teaching - instructional language of the lesson
3. Active Engagement - children try or discuss what they've just been taught
4. Link - we situate what we've taught into the larger context of all they've been doing
If Children Need More Time
If Children Need More Time suggests alternative minilessons that reinforce the session's concept or strategy.
Teachers should identify:
What did not work?
What the students learned?
What do the students still need to learn?
More about conferencing...
Each conference is organized around four components:
1. Research - observe and interview to understand the child's intentions
2. Decide - consider whether to accept or alter the child's current plans and decide what you will teach and how you will teach it
3. Teach - help the child get started and then coach them to a higher level of action
4. Name what the child has done as a writer and remind him/her to do it again in the future
Units of Study is guided by Research Based Principles:
There are fundamental traits of all good writing, and students write well when they learn to use these traits.
Using a writing process to teach the complex task of writing increases student achievement.
Students benefit from teaching that offers direct instruction, guided practice, and independent practice.
To write well, writers need ample time to write everyday.
A well-rounded curriculum provides supports for struggling writers and ELLs.
Writing and reading are joined processes, and students learn best when writing and reading instruction are coordinated.
Lucy's Tips and Strategies for Young Writers
Units of Study in Primary Writing are divided into two grade levels:
Units of Study are designed to be a yearlong curriculum:
Planning ahead with curricular calendars
Collaboration across grade-levels
Parents should be informed about the program in the beginning of the school year
The goal of the program is to provide students with sequenced writing instruction.
Units of Study in Primary Writing are aligned through the Anchor Standards for Reading, Writing, Foundational Skills (PreK-5), Speaking and Listening, and Language.
Close reading of texts
Identification of key ideas and details
Analyzing events and ideas
Craft and Structure
Integration of knowledge
Print Concepts/Phonological Awareness/Phonics/Word Recognition
Use a combination of writing, drawing, and dictating to compose stories
Revision and Editing
Using technology for collaboration and publishing
C. Foundational Skills
D. Speaking and Listening
Participation in conversations and collaborations
Use of proper grammar and punctuation
References for Presentation
Units of Study in Primary Writing K-2