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Information Systems by palash mallik

Sean Percival's presentation from Le Web 2009. "The History of the Real Time Web"
by

palash mallik

on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Information Systems by palash mallik

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Types Of Information Systems
TPS
MIS
ESS
DSS
A computerized system that performs and records daily routine transastions necessary to conduct businesss.
Computer systems are good at:
Speed
Accuracy
Reliability
Programmability
Repetitive Tasks
Humans are better at:
Judgement/experience
Improvisation/flexibility
Innovation
Intuition
Qualitative information
Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving
Categories of IS in Organization
Sales and marketing
Selling products and services

Manufacturing
Making products and services

Accounting
Maintaining financial records; accounting for flow of funds

Human resources
Attracting, developing, (personnel) maintaining the labour force;maintaining employee records
Level of System
Function of organization
Types Of IS
ESS are designed to incorporate data about external events, such as new tax laws or competitors, but they also draw summarized information from internal MIS and DSS
DSS help managers make decisions that are unique, rapidly changing, and not easily specified in advance
DSS use internal information from TPS and MIS, they often bring in information from external sources, such as current stock prices or product prices of competitors
Archimedes
Right Information
Right Information
At
Right Time
to Right people
*what is the amount of money one will
get after 100 years if he makes 100 taka as
fixed deposite for five year where money
is double in every five years?
?
Examples
An airline seat reservation system
ATM Transaction
POS
History
In 1979 Gene Mosher's Old Canal Cafe in Syracuse,
New York was using POS software written by Mosher that ran on an Apple II
to take customer orders at the restaurant's front entrance and print complete
preparation details in the restaurant's kitchen
Efficient: With the aid of common barcode scanners and touch screen interfaces, you can process your sales quickly and efficiently
Easy to learn: No expensive training for staff as easy to learn.
Easy to use: Requires minimum keystrokes and the mouse is never required
Flexible: Handles any combination of discounts, taxes, returns, credits and sales specials in one easy transaction.
Automatic: Applies automatic discounts or preferred price levels to special customers
Accommodating: If something is not in stock can send a customer order to the purchase order system
Secure: Can view and automatically calculated profit margins and stock counts.
Versatile: Prints sales slips, price quotes and account invoices.
Features
Features
Rapid response:
Reliability:
Inflexibility:
Businesses cannot afford to have customers waiting for a TPS to respond, the turnaround time from the input of the transaction to the production for the output must be a few seconds or less
Many organizations rely heavily on their TPS; a breakdown will disrupt operations or even stop the business. For a TPS to be effective its failure rate must be very low. If a TPS does fail, then quick and accurate recovery must be possible
If a TPS were flexible, there would be too many opportunities for non-standard operations, for example, a commercial airline needs to consistently accept airline reservations from a range of travel agents, accepting different transactions data from different travel agents would be a problem.
Some Rules
Atomic:
The transaction will either happen or not. If one account is debited, then another account has to be credited.
Consistent:
The transaction processing system must always be consistent with its own rules. If errors occur in the transaction on either side, then the transaction will fail
Isolating:
Isolating transactions means that other processes never see information during the transaction. They may see information before or after the transaction, but not during the transaction
Durable:
No matter what problems occur to the system, there are back-ups in place in the transaction processing system to ensure that the record stays permanent
Characteristics
Relevance
Accurate
Timely
Cost-Effective
Information should be relevant to the strategic decision that company management is currently reviewing
MIS information should be accurate and avoid any inclusions of estimates or probable costs.
Many management decisions are based on information from a certain time period, such as quarterly or annual periods
The MIS needs to be a cost-effective and efficient system for gathering information
Typical Inputs and Outputs
Inputs: Information from the TPS
Outputs: hard and softcopy reports
Scheduled reports
On-demand reports
Exception reports
Bank Loan
Company History
Bank Statement
Tax Certificate
National Id Card
Applicable areas
The time and place in which a transaction is made, points of sale computer systems terminals. Reading product tags, updating inventory are some of the operations performed at the point of sale
POS
Master Details
Transaction
Alteration
Order
Report
Utility
Security
Books
Charges
Tax Type
Customer
Supplier
Item Details
Branch
Category
Shift
Employee Department
Employee
Address Type
Country
State
City
Currency
Branch
Terminal
Gift Voucher
Scheme
Measurement Definition
General Contact
Message
Bank
General Transaction Details
Goods Received Note
Purchase
Purchase Return
Delivery Challan
Sales
Sales Return
Cashier
Cash pick Up
Terminal wise cash Balance
Item Alias
Physical Stock Taken
Approval Details
Goods Inward Approval(Supplier)
Goods Return Approval(Supplier)
Approval For Customer(Dispatch)
Approval For Customer(Received)
Branch Transfer Details
Transfer In
Transfer out
It manages alteration details against sales when item come from alteration
Purchase Order
Sales Order
Quotation
Purchase Order Cancel
Sales Order Cancel
utility that attempts to glean quite a lot of information about a system from its Programmable Option Select (POS) registers
Customer Listing
POS-index listing
Customer Detail Report
POS Index-detail
Account Aging
A/R Statements
Mailing Labels
Vendor Detail Report
Vendor Listing
Accounts Payable Reports
Woodland who was an IBM employee and Silver built the first barcode reader in 1952. This first prototype used a 500-watt light bulb and a RCA photo multiplier vacuum tube.
1981 First Restaurant POS
1979 A POS scanning system was developed.
1971 The first electronic cash register (NCR).
1970 The first POS terminal (NCR).
1884 NCR founded in the U.S.
1878 The cash register was invented by James Ritty.
Hotel/Motel
Liquor Store
Lounge/Bar
Music Store
Pet Store
Pharmacy
Pizzeria
Restaurant
Salon/Beauty
Video Store
General Retail
Auto Repair
Book Stores
Childcare
Cinema
Construction
Fast Food
Food Stores
Gift Shops
Management information systems provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively
Right information in Right way
Efficiency

Transparency

Speedy Decision making
Achieve
Canadian National Railway
Examples
Clinical decision support system
Characteristics of a DSS
Handles large amounts of data from different sources
Provides report and presentation flexibility
Performs complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages
Capabilities of a DSS
defining overall vision
strategic planning
strategic organizing and staffing
strategic control
crisis management
Capabilities of an ESS
Examples
SDLC
Waterfall Model
Hannibal
Waterfall Strengths
Easy to understand, easy to use
Provides structure to inexperienced staff
Milestones are well understood
Sets requirements stability
Good for management control (plan, staff, track)
Works well when quality is more important than cost or schedule
Waterfall Deficiencies
All requirements must be known upfront
Deliverables created for each phase are considered frozen inhibits flexibility
Can give a false impression of progress
Does not reflect problem-solving nature of software development iterations of phases
Integration is one big bang at the end
Little opportunity for customer to preview the system (until it may be too late)
When to use the Waterfall Model
Requirements are very well known
Product definition is stable
Technology is understood
New version of an existing product
Porting an existing product to a new platform.
Prototyping
Advantages of Prototyping
Can be used when customer is not sure about what he wants
Faster way of finalizing the requirements
Useful for new technologies and domains
Disadvantages of Prototyping
A prototype if used in a production environment, may lack quality
Overall maintainability may be overlooked
The customer may want the prototype delivered.
Process may continue forever (scope creep)
Spiral Model
Advantages
Avoidance of Risk is enhanced.
Strong approval and documentation control.
Implementation has priority over functionality.
Additional Functionality can be added at a later date.
Highly customized limiting re-usability
Applied differently for each application
Risk of not meeting budget or schedule
Possibility to end up implemented as the Waterfall framework
Disadvantages
When to use Spiral Model
Long-term project commitment is unwise because of potential changes to economic priorities
Users are unsure of their needs
Requirements are complex
New product line
Significant changes are expected (research and exploration)
Guochanhua
A framework that describes the activities performed at each stage of a software development project.
Computer
A computer is an electronic device that can process data.
A computer is an electronic device that processes information by performing mathematical calculations or logical operations under the direction of a stored program.

What is Computer?
History of Computer
Types of computer
Supercomputer


Mainframe


Minicomputer


Microcomputer

computer was recorded in 1613,
The Machine That Changed The World
Agile
Agile development focus on rapid delivery of working software
by breaking a large project into series of small sub projects
that are completed in short periods of time
using iteration and continuous feedback.
Gartner defines Agility as "the ability of an organization to sense environmental change and respond efficiently and effectively to that change.
Oracle 125.91 b
Microsoft 206
Groupon 1.35 b
IS VS IT
Information Systems is a large umbrella referring to systems designed to create, store, manipulate, or disseminate information
IT deals with the technology involved in the systems themselves
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Hardware
Software
Databases
Networks
Other related components
are used to build
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Payroll System
Inventory System
Marketing System
Customer Service System
A decision support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities
The User
Database
Planning Language
Model Base
General
Special
regression analysis
Time Series Analysis
Business view of Data
Discover hidden trend
Model base is representation of some events, facts or situation
that enable companies to represent variables and their relationship
Buy or Lease
User Interface Management
On Sunday 14 April at 19:00, the Californian's only wireless operator, Cyril Evans, reported three large icebergs 15 miles (24 km) north of the course the White Star Line passenger ship Titanic was heading
Components of DSS
Full transcript