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Bicycles

A presentation outlining how modern bicycles work
by

Kevin :D

on 18 October 2012

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Transcript of Bicycles

Kevin Smiley, Kirsten Beckner, Jeff Connelly, Tyler Kurtz Bicycles - The Frame
-Front Fork
-Suspension
-Wheels
-Seat Apparatus
-Brakes
- Drivetrain The Parts - Consists of tubes connected together in a truss formation.
-This adds rigidity to the structure.
-This is basically the core of the bike.
-Everything that allows a bike to work is connected to and interacts in some way with the frame. The Frame Front Fork Suspension Main Function Purpose Brakes
-Carbon (High-Tensile) Steel
-Chromoly (Chrome Molybdenum)
-Aluminum
-Titanium
-Carbon Fiber Frame Materials -Most Common
-Strong, and durable
-Heaviest of all frames - Workhorse material
- Light and strong steel
- Offers good flex -Widely Used
-Light, strong, solid
-Good for climbing, and tricky handling - Lighter than steel, just as strong
- Found on high-end road or cross country mountain bikes.
- Effective flex and shock absorption - Very stiff
- Extremely light
-Cannot withstand high impact
-Most expensive Top Tube
-Provides comfortable fit
-Not horizontal (lower angle at seat post for women's models/ touring models) Down Tube
- Connects the bottom bracket with the head tube
-Adds rigidity
- A common place for water bottle storage Seat Tube
- Encases the seat post in the main frame of the bike.
-Also attaches to the bottom bracket Head Tube
-Front tube of the frame.
-Holds the front fork steady and allows it to pivot
-It varies according to frame size more than any other piece. Fork
-Holds the front wheel in place
-Attached via the head tube
-Can include a suspension system
-Holds axle for front wheel
-Includes brake system Seat Stay
-Thin frame tubes that run from the rear fork
to the seat post.
-Can have a built in suspension if the chain stay is hinged
-Includes rear brake system
-Supports rear wheel Chain Stay
-Tubes that run from the bottom bracket
to the rear fork.
-Supports derailleur
-Typically tapered
-Runs along chain length helping keep any play or wobble in the chain from interfering with the wheel. Main Functions - A member of the suspension system in a mountain bike.
- Absorbs shock.
- Attaches wheel to the frame.
- Helps to maintain control and stability on bumpy roads Parts -The two fork blades:
-Encase the front wheel -Fork Crown: Where two blades meet. -Steerer tube connects fork to head tube and handle bars. -Drop-outs: Parts that connect
the end of the blades to the wheel axle. Types -Coil sprung forks Have steel spring coils in the fork. This type is strong. Downhill bikes and jump bikes typically have these. - Air spring forks -Work by increasing the amount of air and pressure in the fork.
-Makes the spring harder to compress.
-Are lighter, and found on XC bikes. Components Seat Apparatus Types Leather- Classic seat found on older bikes. Commonly seen with a wide base for comfortable cuising at low speeds. More modernly, they are made with synthetic materials. -Allows the rider to comfortably mount the bike.
-It adjusts forward and back for support.
-It can also be adjusted up and down for height differences and riding styles. Race- Narrow and stiff to allow high control and maneuverability. Is lightweight and usually structured with titanium rails. Mountain- Narrow, but has more padding than a racing saddle. Sloped in the back. Allows for adjustment in varying terrain. Reinforced to prevent damage. Gel- Many saddles now, particularly those on cruising bikes and some mountain bikes are outfitted with a closed cell foam to increase comfort. Suspension- Many mountain saddles are also outfitted with internal suspension allowing for more shock absorption while riding. -Brakes are critical to give the rider speed control.
-They tend to vary depending on the type of bike. Cantilever Disc Caliper Center Pull -Have 2 brake pads on either side that grip the rim when the brake cable is squeezed.
-Widely used on mountain bikes, and most recreational bikes because they are lightweight and easy to manufacture. -Most common on road bikes
-Have a horseshoe shape bracket that holds pads near rim.
-Bracket has pivot points that close when the brake cable is pulled. -Strongest type/Quickest stopping power
-Popular on mountain, touring, and cyclocross bikes
-Work well in all weather
-They are expensive and heavy - Have a Y bracket that holds two separate pads on either side of the wheel rim
-They are more technical
-Mostly used on touring bikes Main Description Types -Is the system used to suspend the rider and the bike -Protects from the roughness of the terrain over which they travel -Primarily used on mountain bikes -Most bike suspensions have two main parts:
Spring and shock absorber -Single Pivot
*Classic design
*Places pivot above and in front of the bottom bracket
*Very simple, light in weight -Faux Bar
*Variation of the single pivot, has the pivot placed much closer to the bottom bracket(Usually just to the rear of it)
*The rear triangle has a pivot on the seatstay and a rocker linkage to drive the shock to produce a strong and torsionally stiff design -Standard Four Bar
*Similar to the faux bar except the rear triangle pivot is on the chainstay
*Gives a plush ride -Twin Link Four Bar
*Variation of the four bar
*Connects the rear triangle to the front by two short links
*Allows the floating pivot point to vary quite a lot through the travel
*There are different versions of this such as
•Virtual Pivot Point (VPP)
•Dw-link
•Maestro
•Quad Link -Active Braking Pivot
*Mimics the four and faux bar setups
*Places the rear pivot concentrically to the rear axle
*Basically it is a faux bar with the braking advantages of the four bar -Floating Drivetrain
*Incorporates the whole drivetrain on the swingarm
*Provides no pedal kickback
*Efficiency can lessen when you’re standing up Common Bike Types - Mountain
-Road
-Cyclocross
-Touring
-Recumbent
-Cruiser Drivetrain Pedals/crankshaft Chain Gears Derailleur –Allow for more torque to be applied to the drive gear
–Some pedals have clips or straps to allow force to be applied on the upstroke as well
–Usually made of plastic or metal –Basic metal roller chain, usually made of steel, but some high performance bikes use titanium – Made of either steel or titanium
– Allow for different ratios between the drive and output shafts
– Typically 3 on the drive shaft and 7-8 on the rear wheel, but different and custom setups can also be found, especially on racing bikes
- Some bikes, like those used in velodromes, are fixed speed, with only one gear. – The front and rear derailleur use the varying position of a metal cable to move the chain from one sprocket to another
– The pedals must be turning forward for the derailleur to function properly
– The front and rear derailleurs are very different in design, with the rear one including a tensioning arm on the chain to account for the varying chain diameters Wheels Hub Spokes Rim Tube Tread – The hub is where the spokes are attached to the central bearing
– On the rear wheel, there is typically a set of gears attached to the wheel to drive it, with a pawl and ratchet system to allow the wheel to coast.
– If the bike uses disc brakes, they are typically attached to the hub – The spokes are thin pieces of wire that keep stiffness in the wheel.
– Contrary to popular belief, the main force on the spokes is tension, as the bike's weight “hangs” from the top half of the wheels
– On high end bikes, they are sometimes replaced with carbon fibre rods or struts instead of the steel spokes.
– The spokes must be laced at a proper angle, especially on the rear wheel, to allow for torque to be applied without distorting the rim's shape. – The rim is made of extruded steel or aluminum joined in a ring, or occasionally carbon fiber.
– The rim has many holes in it to allow for spoke attachment.
– With caliper brakes, the brake pads squeeze on a flat part of the rim to slow the bike.
– The rim typically has a notch on the inside for the tread to catch on when the tube is inflated. – The tube is what gives a bike tire its bounce and cushion.
– It is a rubber doughnut with a valve fixed to the interior to allow for inflation and deflation.
– It is very thin, but strong, though need to be protected from abrasion by the tread. – The tread provides a better grip to the tire
– Also provides abrasion and puncture resistance
– Made of thermoformed rubber, some specialty tires have additional material such as Kevlar or Dacron to provide puncture resistance Bottom Bracket
-Area where the chain stay, the seat tube, and the down tube connect.
-Also known as the hanger. Works Consulted -Brain, Marshall. "HowStuffWorks "How Bicycles Work"." HowStuffWorks "Adventure". HowStuffWorks, Inc, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/biking/bicycle.htm>.
-Carver, Noelle. "Types of Bicycle Seats | eHow.com." eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/list_6745447_types-bicycle-seats.html>.
-"EcoVelo Blog Archive: Common Bicycle Brake Types." EcoVelo . N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ecovelo.info/2010/12/21/common-bicycle-brake-types/>.
-"Front Fork." Utah Mountain Biking - Trails, Information, Repairs. Utah Mountain Biking, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://www.utahmountainbiking.com/fix/forkoff.htm>.
-Hayes, Paul 'Supersonic', and Simon Young. "Buyer's Guide To Mountain Bike Suspension, Part 2 - BikeRadar." Bikes, Bike Reviews, Cycling Routes, Race News - BikeRadar. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.bikeradar.com/gear/article/buyers-guide-to-mountain-bike-suspension-part-2-28438/>.
-Heron, S.F.. "How Does Bike Suspension Work? | eHow.com." eHow | How to Videos, Articles & More - Discover the expert in you. | eHow.com. Demand Media, Inc., n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4740084_bike-suspension-work.html>.
-Langley, Jim. "Bicycle Seats Bike Saddles Explained." Jim Langley — Bicycle Aficionado. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. <http://www.jimlangley.net/crank/bicycleseats.html>. -"Motorcycle Front Ends." puppascott on HubPages. Referenced from Chopper Fundamentals 101, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://puppascott.hubpages.com/hub/Motorcycle-Front-Ends>.
-Nice, Karim. "HowStuffWorks "How Mountain Bikes Work"." HowStuffWorks "Adventure". HowStuffWorks, Inc., n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/biking/mountain-bike.htm>.
-Plas, Rob. "The Steering System." The mountain bike book: choosing, riding, and maintaining the off-road bicycle. 3rd, completely updated and expanded ed. San Francisco: Bicycle Books ;, 1993. 82-84. Print.
-Rinard, Damon. "Fork Lengths." www.sheldronbrown.com. Damon Rinard, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <www.sheldonbrown.com/rinard/forklengths.htm>.
-Walton, Bill, and Bjarne Rostaing. Bill Walton's Total book of bicycling. Toronto: Bantam Books, 19851984. Print.
-Wright, Gen. "4 Types Of Mountain Bike Forks And Their Uses." ArticleSnatch Free Article Directory. www.articlesnatch.com, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/4-Types-Of-Mountain-Bike-Forks-And-Their-Uses/1013858#ixzz28BMWR0LH>.
-Wood, T.D.. "Understanding Bike Frame Materials." www.rei.com. REI, Inc., 26 July 2012. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <http://www.rei.com/learn/expert-advice/bike-frame-materials.html>.
-Miscellaneous Pictures:
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=suspension+bike+seat&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&rls=com.
http://www.trekbikes.com/us/en/bikes/mountain/dual_sport/ds_series/8_6_ds/#
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