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Inversion Sprains By Saad C. , Vivek P. , and Owen R.

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Owen Robinson

on 20 January 2016

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Transcript of Inversion Sprains By Saad C. , Vivek P. , and Owen R.

Inversion Sprains
What is an Inversion Sprain? What Muscles/Joints are Involved?
An ankle sprain occurs when ligaments are stretched out of their range of motion and sometimes torn.

Inversion sprains occur on the lateral part of the foot.

The three ligaments attached to the lateral malleolus are:
Anterior Talofibular ligament (ATFL)
Calcaneofibular ligament (CFL)
Posterior Talofibular ligament (PTFL)

The joints involved are:
Talocalcaneonavicular joint
Subtalar joint
What is the Mechanism of the Injury? How does the Injury Occur?
What are the Signs and Symptoms of the Injury?
How is this Injury Diagnosed?
Easy to diagnose
Spot of pain is tender and swollen
Key is to differentiate from ankle break (X-ray is used)
In extreme cases (grade 3) MRI is used to find bone chipping or ankle joint and cartilage damage.
By: Saad Chowdhury, Vivek Philips, Owen Robinson
The tendon attached to the lateral malleolus is the peroneal tendon.

The muscles involved in the "rolling" of the ankle are the peroneus longus and brevis. These can be torn if the sprain is severe enough.

The nerve associated with the peroneus muscles is the Superficial peroneal nerve. It is at risk of traction if the sprain is severe enough.
In what Sports or Activities does this Injury Commonly Occur?
What are the Strategies to Deal with this Injury?
Resources
PSK4U - Introduction to Kinesiology
Grade 1 - Inversion Ankle Sprain
Mild stretching of the ATFL (Anterior Talofibular ligament)
Mild pain
Little or no instability
Some joint stiffness with difficulty walking or running
Some stretching or minor tearing of the lateral ankle ligaments
Mild swelling around the bone on the outside of the ankle
Grade 2 - Ankle Inversion Sprain
Complete tear of the ATFL (Anterior Talofibular ligament) and a partial tear of the CFL (Calcaneofibular ligament).
Moderate to severe pain with difficulty walking
Minor bruising along with swelling and stiffness in the ankle joint
Some instability of the joint resulting from moderate tearing of some of the ligament fibres
"Ankle Sprains or Inversion Sprains." Resolving Ankle Sprains. Kinetic Health. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. http://kinetichealth.ca/ankle-sprains-or-inversion-sprains/

" How to Care for a Sprained Ankle." How to Care for a Sprained Ankle. American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. https://www.aofas.org/footcaremd/how-to/foot-injury/Pages/How%20to%20Care%20for%20a%20Sprained%20Ankle.aspx

"Joints of Inversion and Eversion." Joints of Inversion and Eversion. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. http://www.gla.ac.uk/t4/~fbls/files/fab/tutorial/anatomy/jiet.html

" Ankle Sprain." Ankle Sprain. American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. https://www.aofas.org/footcaremd/conditions/ailments-of-the-ankle/Pages/Ankle-Sprain-.aspx

"Inversion Ankle Sprain." Physiotherapy Functional Wellness Core Concepts. Core Concepts: The Muscle and Body People. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. http://www.coreconcepts.com.sg/article/inversion-ankle-sprain/

"Ankle Sprain." - Symptoms, Treatment, Rehab & Exercises. Sportsinjuryclinic.net. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/sport-injuries/ankle-achilles-shin-pain/sprained-ankle#symp

"Ankle Sprain." Healthline. Ed. William Morrison. Healthline, 1 Dec. 2015. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. http://www.healthline.com/health/ankle-sprain#Symptoms3

"Ankle Sprain." Physiopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2016. http://www.physio-pedia.com/Ankle_Sprain

"Ankle Sprain Image." Digital image. Ankle Braces - What You Need to Know. InReview, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. http://medicalbraces.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/ankle-sprain-image.jpg

Digital image. What You Need to Know About Your Feet: The Joints. Foundation Pilates, 21 June 2014. Web. 04 Jan. 2016. http://www.foundationpilates.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/bbfoot.jpg

"Ankle Sprain." Digital image. Ankle Sprains. Ankle & Foot Clinic Northwest, n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2016. http://www.ankleandfootnorthwest.com/ankle-sprain.html
Resources Cont.
Most likely to occur when foot is plantar flexed
ligaments & joints of ankle under a lot of pressure making them more vulnerable
Sudden force (while foot is plantar flexed) may suddenly invert the ankle causing hyperflexion
Landing from a jump
Being pushed
Stepping on uneven surface
Hyperflexion will injure the ligaments & joints resulting in sprain
More common than eversion sprains
Medial aspect of foot is more stable than lateral aspect
Lateral malleolus landmark of fibula & extends further down (to a more distal position) than medial malleolus
Medial malleolus landmark of tibia
Tibia thicker bone than fibula
Foot tends to invert than evert when a sudden force is applied
Important to reduce swelling as soon as possible
use R.I.C.E. method
Rest
- put as little weight on the ankle as possible
Ice
ankle 4-5 times a day to reduce swelling
Compress
using ACE wrap to control swelling & support ankle
Elevate
ankle above heart & waist to reduce swelling
Three phases of recovery
Time length of each phase depends of severity of sprain
Phase 1 - Resting, protecting, and reducing swelling of the injury (where RICE method used)
Phase 2 - restoring flexibility, range of motion, and strength to the injured ankle
Phase 3 - gradually returning back to strenuous activity and doing maintenance exercises
Depending on the severity, the recovery time varies
Grade 1 sprains usually heal by 1 week
Grade 2 sprains can take up to 3 weeks to heal
Grade 3 sprains can take 1 - 2 months to heal and require usage of an ankle brace for the first 3 weeks
Phase 2 exercises - seated ankle circles, active dorsi flexion & plantar flexion, active inversion and eversion
Phase 3 exercises - jogging & skipping supported by an ankle brace and proper warm up
Several things can be done to lower risk of inversion ankle sprains
1 - proper warm up before physical activity
2 - building up leg muscles to protect ankle's ligaments and joints
gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus & brevis
3 - respecting your body's limits
"TENNIS ANKLE BREAK." YouTube. YouTube, 25 Mar. 2006. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <https://andreacollo.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/si55550715small.jpg>

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://lowerextremityinjury.pbworks.com/f/1258510805/plantar-flexion-inversion-sprain.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/woman-runner-jogger-stretching-legs-warming-up-silhouette-one-caucasian-studio-isolated-white-background-34267451.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://mblextest.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/M21.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://web.eccrsd.us/christy/public/Athletic_Training/ankle_sprain_rehab_beginner_files/Picture%201.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.physioroom.com/images/products//full/38205_image2.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://images.wisegeek.com/foot-pronated-with-ice-bag-on-ankle.jpg>.

Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://share.upmc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/781.jpg>.

Grade 3 - Inversion Ankle Sprain
High Levels of Pain
Low Levels of Pain
Complete rupture of both the ATFL and CFL
Severe pain will be felt initially with lots of swelling and extensive bruising.
The athlete will experience gross instability of the joint.

When the foot turns in or out to an abnormal degree relative to the ankle
Combination of plantarflexion and inversion where the foot is pointing downward and inward.
Commonly occurs during sports that put high levels of pressure on the athlete's ankle
A lot of jumping = a greater chance of injury when the athlete lands unbalanced
Pain on the outside of the ankle
Various degrees of swelling and bleeding under the skin (i.e. bruising). bruising is referred to as ecchymosis.
Depending on the severity of the sprain, a person may or may not be able to put weight on the foot.
Examples of common sports with this injury are: volleyball, basketball, and gymnastics.
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