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Causes of Juvenile Crime Theory
Transcript of Causes of Juvenile Crime Theory
(In other words....Who's to blame?) CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME Positive School Human behavior is governed by Natural Law. Once we understand the causes of human behavior, we will be able to correct these behaviors and eliminate deviance. 1. Character and personal background of an individual explains deviant behavior
Look for causes of behavior first in the actor. 2. Delinquency is predetermined by causes
Deviant behavior isn't based on free will and rational choice 3. Delinquency is different from non delinquency
Delinquent youth are driven into crime by internal and external factors Biological Positivism Lombroso's "Born Criminal" = A genetic reversion to earlier evolutionary level. Psychological Positivism Must pay attention to the importance of personal emotions in human behavior. Individual therapy is needed to address Address juvenile delinquency SENSATION SEEKING - do it because of the rush, the hype, and the satisfaction of getting away with it. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY - Freud concluded that emotional trauma experienced as a child will cause lifelong psychological issues. THE PSYCHOPATH - those diagnosed with this conduct disorder, were rejected or unwanted children who never develop "trust in" or "loyal to others" REINFORCEMENT THEORY - behavior is governed by its consequent rewards and punishments and rewards of crime are more immediate, whereas rewards of noncrime are realized in the future Sociological Positivism Must take into consideration underlying social and cultural conditions that give rise to juvenile offending. Social reform, not individual counseling, will prevent crime SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION - delinquent behavior becomes alternative mode of socialization through which youth who are a part of disorganized communities
CULTURAL DEVIANCE THEORY - Lower class has a distinct culture and values (trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, autonomy and violence) which motivate youth to be involved in criminal activities.
STATUS FRUSTRATION THEORY - Lower class is unable to obtain the goals of a middle class culture and therefore become involved in deviant nonconformist behavior. SOCIAL STRUCTURAL THEORIES SOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY - Crime is a learned behavior and is therefore a product of social interaction.
CONTAINMENT THEORY - weak internal controls (self control, self concept, tolerance to frustration) and reinforcing external control (social norms, peer activity) lead to crime.
SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY - Deviant acts occur when an individuals' bond to society is weak or broken.
LABELING PERSPECTIVE - Society creates deviants by labeling those who are apprehended as different from other juveniles, when in reality, they are only different because we label them as deviant. CONFLICT THEORY Conventional delinquency and crime are caused by extreme poverty, economic alienation, Power and authority, group and cultural conflict. 2 Paths of Delinquent Behaviors
1) early age delinquents develop a life long pattern of criminality
2) adolescents develops a limited path and around 18 ceases delinquency SOCIOBIOLOGISTS - Criminal behaviors is the results of both biological and societal factors. Juveniles are rational human beings who commit crimes out of free will. Crime is a purposeful activity resulting from rational decisions in which the pros and cons are weighed and the acts that promise the greatest potential gain are performed. RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY
Focuses on free will and rational calculations of payoffs and costs before delinquent acts are committed.
Individuals can't help committing criminal acts because they are controlled either by
internal factors (biological or psychological)
external factors (poverty, learning from others, societal labels) Classical Theory Offenders are presumed to need treatment rather than punishment because they are driven to crime. DETERMINISTIC VIEW Human beings are viewed as rational creatures who, being free to choose their actions, can be held responsible for their behaviors. FREE WILL The Dimensions of Law-Violating Behaviors Age of Onset - The earlier juveniles begin law violating behaviors the more likely they are to continue to them Escalation of Offenses - An increase in the number and severity of offenses committed by an individual Specialization of Offenses - The tendency to repeat one type of crime Desistance from Crime (Age of Termination of Delinquency) - Related to the maturation process come to want a conventional lifestyle or do not desire to continue criminal activities. Transition to Adult Crime - These youthful offenders continue to commit crimes into adulthood GENERAL THEORY OF CRIME
Lack of self control (internal influence) PLUS crime opportunity (external influence) = Criminal Behavior Integrated Theory INTEGRATED SOCIAL PROCESS THEORY
Socially disorganized places where youth have weak bonds with conventional groups norms, and activities = high level of strain. This creates delinquent peer groups which positively reinforce and model delinquent behavior. INTERACTIONAL THEORY
Family and social groups are opportunities to reshape delinquent behavior.
Class plays a strong role because those youth begin life the least bonded to conventional society and most exposed to deliqnent behavior.