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Camp David Accords
Transcript of Camp David Accords
Yom Kippur War begins
October 25th, 1973
Yom Kippur War Ends
20th January, 1977
Jimmy Carter becomes President of the United States
9th November, 1977
President Anwar El Sadat announces he will be the first Arab leader to visit Israel.
15th November, 1977
19th November, 1977
Historic three day visit begins with Sadat meeting with Begin and addressing the Israeli Knesset (also lays wreath on monument of Israeli war dead) beginning the negotiations.
2-5th December, 1977
Representatives from Syria, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, South Yemen, and the PLO meet in Libya to discuss how to prevent the peace talks between Egypt and Israel.
5th December, 1977
Egypt cuts diplomatic ties with Syria, Iraq, Libya, Algeria and South Yemen
14th December, 1977
Egypt hosts US, Israel and UN at peace summit.
Camp David Accords
Definitions to Know
Camp David was the country retreat of the president of the United States.
Sinai is a triangular peninsula in Egypt which borders the Suez canal and Israel/Gaza.
The Straits of Tiran are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas, separating the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea.
Yom Kippur War was fought by the coalition of Arab states led by Syria and Egypt against Israel from October 6th to 25th, 1973.
The Suez Canal is an artificial waterway in Egypt which connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
Gaza is a Palestinian city, located in the Gaza Strip.
- He was elected President for the Democratic Party on January 20 1977
- After Gamal Abdel Nasser Sadat took every opportunity to separate himself from Nasser and his views on one Arab Nation.
What Are The Camp David Acccords?
Formally known as the “The Framework for Peace in the Middle East”
Signed by Egypt’s President Anwar Al-Sadat and the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978 in Camp David Maryland
Factors That Lead to These Negotiations
What Role Did America Play ?
Since the negotiations took place in the US, President carter and his administration played a very large role in makng both sides agree to come and in writing up the resolution.
Why did the US do this?
The 2 World Superpowers at the time were the USSR and the US. America did not want the Russians to take advantage of the situation.
America had invested a lot of money into the region
President carter used different tactics to persuade both sides into agreeing
RESULTS OF THE ACCORDS
The Impact of the Peace Treaty Upon the PLO
- Carter acted as lead negotiator throughout the peace talks
- The peace treaty was secured on March 26, 1979 after Carter visited both Egypt and Israel.
- Sadat began the peace movement by becoming the first Arab leader to step foot into Israel
- Sadat was assassinated on October 6, 1987 for betraying the Muslim Brotherhood
- He was a leader in the terrorist group Irgun
- He was imprisoned in 1940 after leading a group to protect polish Jews and to illegally transport them to Israel
- In 1977 Begin was elected Prime Minister and helped to initiate the peace process by meeting with Sadat
- The PLO were unsatisfied
- Sadat widely criticized.
- Second accord focused on Palestinian issues
- The PLO denounced the accord
- Tensions raised until Oslo Accords 1993
- Granted Palestinians self government in Gaza Strip and in the city of Jericho
1. Egypt and Israel were at a stalemate in terms of war. Sadat and his army proved themselves to be capable of defending themselves against the Israeli forces. This shocked Israel, who thought they were more powerful than all their neighbours. The Middle East, especially Israel, had been at war for nearly 30 years at this point.
2. There were many uprisings in the occupied territories of Gaza Strip, West Bank and Sinai Peninsula. These areas also gave birth to terrorist organizations such as the PLO.
3. Sadat wished to reincorporate the Sinai into Egypt thus regain a large portion of land.
4. The U.S government provided both economic and military aid to Egypt as part of the accord.
“In 1976-7, Carter’s strategy focused on convening another Geneva conference. He gained Soviet support for a joint statement in October 1977, that called for reopening the Geneva process. The Egyptians and the Israelis opposed this idea, so they both undertook bilateral initiatives aimed at undercutting the Geneva process. These initiatives opened a new dialogue that led directly to the Camp David negotiations almost a year later” (Quote from Princeton University History Notes)
There were four basic issues to deal with at Camp David:
1) a peace treaty and normalization of relations between Israel and Egypt,
2) demilitarization and removal of Israeli settlements from the Sinai,
3) linkage between these issues and the future of the West Bank and Gaza,
4) a statement on principles, including Israeli withdrawal from all occupied territories and the right of Palestinians to self-determination
The issue of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip would be negotiated between the two with Jordan as the mediator.
Today, the West Bank is recognized by Israel and the Judea And Samaria Territory and controlled by the Israeli government
The negotiations did not come to a full conclusion about the gaza Strip. Israel had full control until the mid 1900's.
Today the Gaza Strip is controlled by Hamas who were 'elected' into that position by the palastinians.
Through the US, Israel formally invites Sadat to visit the country
25-26th December, 1977
8th August, 1978
5th September, 1978
17th September, 1978
19th September, 1978
28th September, 1978
26th March, 1979
Sadat hosts summit with Begin in Ismailia, Egypt.
Camp David meeting scheduled in four weeks time
Camp David negotiations begin
Camp David Accords signed
Egyptian Cabinet approves agreement
Israeli Knesset approves agreement
PLO leader Yasser Arafat travels to Moscow to discuss organized opposition to the agreement
Ceremony is held in Washington, DC, where a peace treaty is formally signed ending 31 years of war between Israel and Egypt.