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C1.7 - Changes in the Earth & its Atmosphere

Earth structure and crust formation, plate tectonics, mantle dynamics, atmosphere development, synthesis of life from atmosphere (Miller-Urey expt)
by

J Amuah-Fuster

on 8 July 2016

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Transcript of C1.7 - Changes in the Earth & its Atmosphere

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
C1.7 - Changes in the Earth & its Atmosphere
The Earth
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
Earthquakes and volcanoes
Chamging Atmosphere
Students should learn:
That carbon dioxide moves in and out of the atmosphere
That the amount of carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere.
The atmosphere and Life
Learning Objectives
The Air we Breathe
The atmosphere we currently have has not always been as it is.
grade E questions
Is Earth a rocky or a gaseous planet?

What are the four layers of Earth?

Estimate the percentage of Earth's surface that is covered with land.
13000 km across
about 70% of the surface is covered with water
Planet Earth
Earth is one of many planets that orbit around a star -
the Sun
.
Earth is a ball-shaped rocky planet that is slightly squashed at the poles.
Earth is made up of
4 layers
atmosphere:
thin layer of air around the Earth
BUT...
How were the mountains and valleys formed?
about 70% of the Earth's surface is covered with water (mostly huge oceans)
the land can be found beside and beneath the water. The rocky formations make up the mountains, valleys, hills and plains
the surface of our palnet
people once thought:
the centre of the earth is very hot because of heat left over form when the Earth was first formed
the mountains and valleys were formed as a result of the uneven shrinking of the crust when the Earth cooled
THIS IS NOT WHAT HAPPENED!!!
Earth is
not
an unchanging ball of solid rock.
It is frequently changing, but VERY SLOWLY...
grade C questions
What is thickest: the mantle, the inner core or the outer core?

Describe what makes up the Earth's outer core.
At the centre, this makes up half of the Earth's diameter.
The core is
very hot
and is made up of a mixture of iron and nickel.
Core:
The core is made up of 2 parts; the
inner
and
outer
core
inner
core is
solid
iron and nickel due to high pressure.
outer
core is a
molten
mixture of iron and nickel that is moved around by
convection currents
Mantle
This is as thick as the core and made up of very hot molten rock that flows very slowly.
Convection currents
make it circulate below the crust.
Crust
A thin layer of cold, solid rock.
It is between 5-30 km thick.
The crust is covered in peaks and troughs (mountains and valleys), with some hollows full of water (seas and oceans).
grade A questions
A new island, Surtsey, appeared in the Atlantic Ocean, near Iceland, in 1963.
Explain how this could happen.
Lesson objectives:
know the structure of the Earth
understand how the features on the Earth's surface were formed millions of years ago.
What is Earth like inside?
How did Earth's surface features form?
Earth's features have been changing very slowly over time...
and they're still changing!
Radioactive
materials inside the Earth create large amounts of heat energy, driving convection currents in the outer core and mantle.
Earth's crust is broken up into separate parts called
tectonic plates
, that float on the mantle.
Convection currents from the outer core and mantle move the plates around, VERY SLOWLY (2 - 5cm per year).
Where plates are pushed together they sometimes form mountains or hills.
Over millions of years, rivers gradually wear away rocks, froming valleys and canyons (e.g. the Grand Canyon)

As rivers reach sea level, they slow down, depositing soil as silt, sometime forming a delta (e.g. the Nile Delta)

In some places, volcanoes on the sea bed throw out material, building up to form islands (e,g, Hawaii and Iceland)
Grand Canyon
Where did life on Earth come from?
Students should learn:
What the Earth’s atmosphere was like in the past
How the mixture of gases in the Earth’s atmosphere was produced
How oxygen was released into the Earth’s atmosphere.
Learning Objectives
Lesson Outcomes
Most students should be able to:
Name the gases that probably made up the Earth’s early atmosphere
List the major events that formed today’s atmosphere
State how oxygen entered the Earth’s atmosphere.

Some students should also be able to:
Explain a theory how the Earth and its atmosphere were formed.
Most students should be able to:
Explain why there are so many theories to how life started on Earth
Some students should also be able to:
Explain how ammonia, hydrocarbons and lightening could have started life on Earth. [HT only]
Evaluate the theories about how life started on Earth. [HT only]
Learning outcomes
Students should learn:
The reasons why there are many theories for how life began on Earth
How ammonia, hydrocarbons and lightening could have been the source of life on Earth. [HT only]
Learning objectives
Most students should be able to:
Describe how carbon dioxide moves into and out of the atmosphere
State that burning fossil fuels has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and describe why this could cause problems.
Some students should also be able to:
Explain why there is a general trend that the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is increasing and evaluate the possible consequences.
Learning outcomes
Full transcript