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Logical Fallacies

Definitions and Examples of Logical Fallacies

Selena Pierluissi

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Logical Fallacies

Logical Fallacies Appeal to Authority Fallacy You used the opinion or position of an authority figure, or instition of authority, in place of an actual arguement. Loaded Question You asked a question that had a presumption built into it so that it couldn't be answered without appearing guilty. Appeal to Emotion Fallacy You attempted to manipulate an emotional response in place of a valid or compelling argument. Strawman Fallacy Genetic Fallacy you judged something as either good or bad on the basis of where it came from, or from whom it came. Because Eminem is est. the product, viewers may see that the product is good only because Eminem is advertising it.

Advertisers make viewers believe that it is a good product only because of the source of information where it came from - a famous person says its good, then it must me good. False Cause Fallacy You presumed that a real or percieved relationship between things mean that one is the cause of the other. "Since Lebron James moved to Miami, my car won't start working. It's all his fault!" - The weak old women turns into a strong man after eating the snickers bar.
- Therefore, eating the snickers bar makes you strong. Slippery Slope Assuming that moving in one direction will necessarily lead to an extreme on that side. Bandwagon Fallacy Ad hominem You appealed to popularity or the fact that many peopledo something as an attempted form of validation When you make a personal attack rather than actually debating the claims being made. This is when you create a misleading depiction of the other side's arguement in order to knock it down People seen the most popular girl where a certain style shirt and so everybody thought is was cool to wear the same type of shirt just because that one popular girl was wearing it. Since Eminem came from Detrot and has reached the top of his industry (and because he endorses this car, that somehow the Chrysler 200 will also make it to the top of the luxury class of vehicles. This assumption is wrong however because Eminem is not a luxury car expert. An emotional appeal because you have this baby who is in time out because he had tried to ride his dog the emotional appeal that the advertisers creates is from us seeing the cute little baby and to top it off its a genius baby that knows all about stock and trade. Middle Ground Fallacy You claimed that a compromise, or middle point, between two extremes must be the truth. Anecdotal Fallacy You used a personal experience or an isolated example instead of a sound argument or compelling evidence. Mutually Exclusive Fallacy You presented two alternative states as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist. No-True Scotsman You made what could be called an appeal to purity as a way to dismiss relevant criticisms or flaws of your argument. You argued that because something is 'natural' it is therefore valid, justified, inevitable, or better. Appeal to Nature Fallacy You assumed that one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it; or that the whole must apply to its parts. Composition/Division Fallacy You used a double meaning or ambiguity of language to mislead or misrepresent the truth. Ambiguity Fallacy Eminem can outshine any rapper from the Boston, therefore he can outshine any rapper in the East Coast. This is ignoring the fact that there are is a whole bunch of other rappers who are impressive from NY, which is the heart of East Coast Hip Hop. Tu Quoque Fallacy You avoided having to engage with criticism by turning it back on the accuser - you answered criticism with criticism. You dismiss evidence all the time and simply call my favorite rappers conceited, so I'm just returning the favor. even if the person did comment and say that, it still doesn't make the other person who's currently dismissing evidence and being a brick wall right. Hey I've seen first hand what the Hip Hop renaissance was like, I know what I'm talking about and have full authority on the matter. here the person is basically using lazy reasoning that since they were there to witness it first hand, that they automatically have all various factors in the scenarios and that their word should be taken as truth and a source for others to follow. You said that the burden of proof lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove. Burden of Proof Eminem is the best multi syllable rapper, prove me wrong. The person has made the claim that Eminem is the best multi syllable rapper, now it's his job to prove that claim not shift it onto the other party to do his dirty work. Just because the product consist of all natural ingredients does not necessarily mean it is the best product for you
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