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AP Enviro Chapter 17: Air Polution
Transcript of AP Enviro Chapter 17: Air Polution
used by the EPA Photochemical Smog Air Pollutants Health Effects Environmental Effects Sources Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Impairs perception and thinking
damages development of fetuses/children
coma, brain damage, death Lung irritation/damage
increased susceptibility to respiratory infections
chronic bronchitis Breathing problems
severe breathing restrictions to asthmatic people
condition similar to bronchitis Breathing problems/coughing
eye, nose, and throat irritation
aggravates chronic disease like asthma, bronchitis, and heart disease
reduces resistance to colds and pneumonia
may speed lung tissue aging Nervous system damage /mental retardation
digestive and other health issues Throat irritation, lung damage, bronchitis
mutations, reproductive issues, cancer poisonous to animals and forms secondary pollutants reduces visibility
acid deposition (HNO3) can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes reduces visibility
acid deposition (H2SO4) can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes can damage plants and trees
smog can reduce visibility can harm wildlife reduces visibility
acid deposition (H2SO4) can damage trees, soils, and aquatic life in lakes cigarette smoke
incomplete burning of fossil fuels fossil fuel burning Coal burning chemical reaction with volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides to form photochemical smog old paints
smelters (ore refineries)
leaded gasoline burning coal
burning diesel and other fuels
agriculture (plowing, burning off fields)
construction What is it?
A mixture of primary and secondary pollutants formed under the influence of sunlight
Brown smog What are the primary and secondary pollutants?
CO, CO2, SO2, NO, NO2
most hydrocarbons and suspended particles
SO3, HNO3, H2SO4, H2O2, O3
Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs)
most NO3- and SO4-2 salts (ions) How's the major pollutant, ozone, formed? NO2 + UV radiation NO + O O + O2 O3 Industry (Gray) Smog What are temperature inversions and how can they be harmful? Subsidence temperature inversion:
Large mass of warm air moves over a mass of colder air near the ground
Radiant temperature inversion:
Typically occurs at night as the air near the ground coolers faster than the air above it
Under the right circumstances, these inversions can last for multiple days, allowing the buildup of pollutants to deadly levels. Ideal conditions?
Sunny climate, light winds, mountains on 3 sides, ocean on the other What cities experience the worst levels of photochemical smog?
Los Angeles, California; Denver Colorado; Salt Lake City, Utah
Sydney,Australia; Mexico City, Mexico; São Paulo and Buenos Aires, Brazil Air Pollutants Primary Secondary Health
Effects Sources Most polluted cities in the world Characteristics Sulfur
(NH4)2SO4 (Ammonium Sulfate) suffocation
acid rain Coal and fossil fuel burning
Industrial dusts 9 cities in China
1 in India What is the atmosphere composed of?
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%), Argon (1%), CO2 (.037%), trace amounts of other gases. Acid Deposition What is it? The descent of wet or dry (particulate) acids from the atmosphere to the ground.
acid rain, snow, fog, and cloud vapor (PH<5.6)
4-14 days from the source
particles such as Ammonium Sulfate ( (NH4)2SO4 )
2-3 days from the source US states most severely affected Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York, Delaware, New Jersey Major negative effects: Human/Material:
leach toxic metals from pipes into drinking water
damage to statues, buildings, etc.
Disappearance of fish populations (devoid of fish at PH < 4.5)
reduce soil fertility
reduce plant productivity. How to reduce it. Prevention:
improve energy efficiency
reduce coal use/burn low-sulfur coal
increase natural gas use
increase use of renewable resources
remove SO2 and NO/NO2 gases from smokestack gases
remove NO/NO2 from vehicular exhaust
tax emissions of SO2
add lime/phosphate fertilizer to neutralize acidified lakes What are the major technologies to remove mercury, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and particulates from the coal burning process? Electrostatic precipitator
wet scrubber Indoor Air Pollutants What is a sick building?
A building that has pollutants that cause dizziness, coughing, sneezing, nausea, burning eyes, flu-like symptoms.
Chemicals released from new carpeting and furniture. 3 most dangerous air pollutants:
radioactive radon-222 gas Major types Characteristics Sources Health Effects Methods to reduce or remove Cigarette smoke
Asbestos Cigarettes Furniture stuffing, paneling, particle board,foam insulation Pipe insulation, vinyl ceilings and floor tiles Lung cancer, respiratory ailments, heart disease Irritation of eyes, throat, skin, and lungs; nausea; dizziness Lung disease, lung cancer Radioactive decay of U-238 Lung cancer (See next slide) Radioactive, quickly decays How do you reduce radon gas in a home?
Sub-slab suction (pulls radon out from under slab), Drain Tile Suction (pulls radon from surrounding soil and away from the house), sealing cracks, covering exposed earth, block wall ventilation (draws radon out of concrete walls before it can enter the home. Clean Air Acts Clean Air Acts were passed by the US Congress in 1970, 1977, and 1990. These laws use a command-and-control approach in which the federal government establishes air pollution regulations that enforced by each state and by major cities. Smoke Preservative string mineral fiber, heat/electricity/acid resistant, insulator Stop smoking Cut off source Don't use as building material, prevent particles from getting into air Methods to reduce
or to remove reduce smoking of cigarettes
increase efficiency of motor vehicles
reduce burning of fossil fuels reduce burning of fossil fuels reduce the burning of coal reduce emissions of volatile compounds (VOCs)
reduce emission of nitrogen oxides reduce lead content of items such as paint, batteries, and gasoline
reduce the burning of coal and other fossil fuels