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Jonathan Nguyen

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of Proteins

By :
Jonathan N.
Stephen Y.
Franklin W.
Protein shape
explain enzymes and
activation energy
how enzymes work
6 main groups of enzymes
how this relates to digestive
system and real-life

What is an Enzyme?

Enzymes are simply proteins (or in some cases RNA molecules) that catalyzes chemical reactions a cell. Each enzyme is made to catalyze a single type of reaction.
Protein Shape
Activation Energy
Activation Energy is the
amount of energy needed
to start a chemical reaction
All chemical reactions need some energy to begin. Enzymes help lower the energy needed so that some reactions could take place where it would otherwise not be possible. This is important because some reactions inside the human body could not occur safely without enzymes because the energy output generated through the reaction would simply cancel with the activation energy.
How does it Work?
6 Main Groups
The first group is Oxidoreductase. This type of enzyme catalyzes oxidation reduction reactions. In this reaction, at least one substrate gets oxidized (loses electrons) and another substrate reduced (gains electrons).

The second type of enzyme is
Transferases. This type of enzyme
catalyzes the transfer of a functional
group from one molecule to another

The third group is called Hydrolase. This type of enzyme catalyzes hydrolysis in a chemical bond.
As we all know, a protein's shape determines its function. (You don't actually need to know all this.)

1. The primary structure of a protein is its unique amino acid sequence which is composed of differing arrangements of a common set of 20 amino acid monomers.

2. The secondary structure of a protein is its general 3-D shape. This structure is held together by hydrogen bonds.

3. The tertiary structure is determined by a protein's geometric shape.

4. Quaternary structure is the arrangement of multiple tertiary structures.

Summary: All of these structures make a protein unique. Enzymes are made to break down a single type of protein and the vast amount of distinguishability
The fourth group of enzyme is called Lyase. This type of enzyme catalyzes the breaking of chemical bonds, other than that of hydrolysis and oxidation.

The fifth type of enzyme is Isomerase. This type of enzyme rearranges existing atoms of a molecule, creating isomers
of the starting material. It catalyzes changes within one molecule causing the product to have the same molecular formula but different physical structure.

The sixth enzyme group is Ligases. This type of enzyme catalyzes the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond usually along with hydrolysis.
Relation to Real Life!
Chewing physically break down the food and salivary amylase (secreted from the salivary glands) break down starch into maltose.
The stomach detects peptides, then gastric juices are release from the glands. The main components are:
1. HCl (keeps pH acidic)
2. Renin (digest milk proteins to peptides)
3. Pepsinogen (digest proteins into smaller peptides)
4. Gelatinase (digests type I and type V gelatin and type IV and V collagen, which are proteoglycans in meat)
5. Gastric Amylase (digest starch)
6. Gastric Lipase (digest fats into fatty acids and glycerol)

How do enzymes work?

That is a much harder question to
answer. Let us explain.
Franklin: Are we done yet?
Johnathan: Sigh*
How does the enzyme know what protien to act on?
That question can be answered by:
A very important point is why enzymes are needed at all. Why can't chemical reactions just occur without enzymes? This question can be answered by the question of activation energy.
First: What
Activation energy?
Although there are many many different types of enzymes, there are only in fact six main groups.

Waites, Gillian. The Cassell Dictionary of Biology. London: Cassell, 1998. Print.
"Digestive Enzymes." - Biology Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Jan. 2014.
"Brief Note on Six Major Types of Enzymes." Brief Note on Six Major Types of Enzymes. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2014.

Rollins, David M. "Classes of Enzymes." Classes of Enzymes. University of Maryland, Feb. 2004. Web. 02 Jan. 2014. <http://www.life.umd.edu/classroom/bsci424/BSCI223WebSiteFiles/ClassesofEnzymes.htm>.
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