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William Shakespeare

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by

Ruud Kempers

on 1 July 2016

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Transcript of William Shakespeare

Works
- Plays (probably 38)
- tragedies
- histories
- comedies
-Sonnets (154)
-Other poems

Comedies (16)
The Tempest
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Merry Wives of Windsor
Measure for Measure
The Comedy of Errors
Much Ado About Nothing
Love's Labour's Lost
A Midsummer Night's Dream

Career
-moved to London to provide for his family as an actor
- Lord Chamberlain's Men (Queen Elizabeth's senior Household officer
- King's Men (King James I)
- became affluent owning a lot of real estate
- retired at about age 47
Authorship
Did Shakespeare do all the writing himself?
Religion
Shakespeare's parents were Catholics and Shakespeare was said to be one too, which was against the law at the time. This would have been remarkable, because Shakespeare was favoured by both Elizabeth and James I, both of whom were head of the Anglican (Protestant) Church.
Sexuality
- Sonnets 1 - 126 are addressed to a Fair Youth, a young man. This includes sonnet 18. Is it platonic or real love?
- Homosexuality seems to be covertly (and sometimes overtly) present, in some of his plays
- What to think of the misogyny in e.g. Hamlet and Macbeth?
- Of course, there was a lot of cross-dressing in the all-male theatre world
William Shakespeare
"The Bard"
- poet, playwright and actor
- baptised 26 April 1564, Stratford-upon-Avon to John Shakespeare (glover and alderman) and Mary Arden, daughter to an affluent landowning farmer
- died 23 April 1616 in Stratford-upon-Avon
- most likely attended the King's New School (reading, writing, the classics), but did not go to university
- married Anne Hathaway at 18, Anne being 3 months pregnant
- three children: Susanna, Hamnet and Judith
William Shakespeare
The Merchant of Venice
As You Like It
The Taming of the Shrew
All's Well That Ends Well
Twelfth Night
The Winter's Tale
Pericles, Prince of Tyre *
The Two Noble Kinsmen *
* believed to have made a serious contribution to these plays
Histories (10)
King John
Richard II
Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 2
Henry V

Henry VI, Part 1
Henry VI, Part 2
Henry VI, Part 3
Richard III
Henry VIII
Tragedies (12)
Troilus and Cressida
Coriolanus
Titus Andronicus
Romeo and Juliet
Timon of Athens
Julius Caesar

Macbeth
Hamlet
King Lear
Othello
Antony and Cleopatra
Cymbeline
Sonnets (154)
- poetic form originated in Italy
- Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet:
- iambic pentameter
- abba, abba, cde, cde
- English (Shakespearian) sonnet:
- iambic pentameter
- abab, cdcd, efef, gg
God
King / Queen
Nobility / Clergy
Gentry
Commoners
Shakespeare's influence
- about 2,000 words and phrases were invented by Shakespeare
- many works derived from his, e.g. Lion King, West Side Story (?)
- recognised world-wide as the greatest dramatist ever
Popularity
-well-liked by both upper class (e.g. references to royal house, Lord Chamberlain's Men, King's Men) and lower class (e.g. comic relief by commoner characters)
Speculation about Shakespeare
http://dewerelddraaitdoor.vara.nl/media/82736
Full transcript