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Happiness and... Brains? The Chemistry Within
Transcript of Happiness and... Brains? The Chemistry Within
i mages nline rint http://www.learningtodanceintherain.com/Lobes_of_the_brain.pnghttp://www.mdc-berlin.de/en/research/research_teams/molecular_physiology_of_somatic_sensation/images/sensory_neuron1.jpghttp://www.georgiapainphysicians.com/downloads/m1_slides/6.%20Synapse.jpghttp://microbiology2009.wikispaces.com/file/view/200px-Histamin_-_Histamine.svg.png/70296463/200px-Histamin_-_Histamine.svg.png What's the brain? Cerebral hemisphere Brainstem Cerebellum (colored sections) (striped sections) (white section) Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe blue yellow pink green Frontal association area Speech Motor cortex Somatosensory cortex Speech Taste Somatosensory association area Reading Visual association area Vision Hearing Auditory association area Smell cknowledgements Thank you Ms. Ellie Brockman for teaching Chemistry and providing the opportunity for this project. I really enjoyed researching this topic and collaborating knowledge with my classmates.
Thank you Mr. Andy Sigears for providing me the AP Bio book; it was the most helpful source I used.
Thank you Ms. Debra Hunt for always helping me find great books and interesting sources.
Thank you Prezi for this wonderful presentation tool.
Thank you all sources for your information. Kristen Anne Tsia
10th grade, Crystal Springs Uplands School
May 15, 2011 completion
(H) Chemistry Section 2
Personal Project Oxford American Dictionaries on the Dashboard of a Mac computer The basic unit: THE NEURON "a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses" through synapses "the region of communication between 2 neurons(/ neuron and muscle)" at 1 neuron's axon and the other's dendrites "a long threadlike part of a" neuron "along which impluses are conducted" "short branching processes extending from" a neuron, "along which impulses received from other cells are transmitted" The Chemistry Within axon
of neuron 1 dendrites
of neuron 2 neuron 1 neuron 2 possible points of a synapse between neuron 1 and neuron 2 synapse (region) dendrite axon terminal neurotransmitter movement (arrows) Finally! The happiness aspect! some Neurotransmitters definition: "a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure." translation: exactly what the diagram said! "an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity.
( brains) the substance of such an organ, typically that of an animal, used as food." We will primarily be using the definition given at the first bullet point. a.k.a. nerve cell Front of head Back of head Norepinephrine
(HO) C H CHOHCH NH The Subparts synaptic vesicles containting neurotransmitter neurotransmitter (receptors) (receptors) An electrical impulse triggers a neurotransmission. Axon of an INHIBITORY neuron Direction of transmission K+ K+ K+ K+ Cl- Cl- Cl- Na+ + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ + + + + + + + + + + + + + _ _ _ _ + + + _ + _ _ + _ _ _ _ + + _ + _ + _ + _ Direction of transmission Na+ + _ _ _ + + Axon of an EXCITATORY neuron _ K+ _ _ + _ Na+ Na+ Na+ Direction of transmission depolarization of the membrane,
with both negative charges and incoming Na+ ions inside the neuron hyperpolarization of the membrane,
with all negative charges inside the neurons (incoming Cl- ions) and all positive charges outside the neurons (outgoing K+ ions) (polar: having 2 equal and oppositely charged poles) Glutamate: C H NO Biogenic Amines: neurotransmitters
derived from amino acids Amino Acids: organic compounds containing a carboxyl group (-COOH) and amino group (-NH ) Peptides: compounds consisting of 2(+) amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid joined to the amino group of the next by −OC−NH− 2 Dopamine
C H NO Histamine: C H N Function: helps control reward and pleasure centers in the brain, helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and helps perceive and move toward rewards
Excess --> brain more responsive to dopamine and person more likely to be sensitive to incentives and rewards 8 11 2 2 6 3 2 2 Function: arousal, energy, drive, stimulation, and
Fight or Flight
Optimal levels --> sense of wellbeing/ euphoric effect in stressful situations
Excess --> fear and anxiety
Deficiency --> lack of energy/ motivation, depression major mediator of excitatory signals
Excess --> overexcitation of the receiving neuron --> cell damage and/or death High concentrations in areas of the brain that regulate emotional behavior
Function: emotion (saddness, pain, sexual desire), stimulates the release of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine
Excess --> hyperactivity, compulsive behavior/ rituals, depression, obsessive sexual desire, abnormal fears, cry easily, often think of suicide
Deficiency --> paranoid and suspicious, abnormally see/hear things, dopamine levels increase 5 9 3 5 9 4