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Copy of WWII & the Cold War
Transcript of Copy of WWII & the Cold War
Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Battle of Britain
Siege of Leningrad
Bataan Death March
Battle of Midway
Battle of Guadalcanal
The Final Solution
Unit 11 Vocabulary
World War II
Hitler's Plan for Germany
2. Final Solution
& forms alliances
Western Europe allows Germany to be aggressive in Eastern Europe in order to prevent war
Japan - Italy - Germany
Great Britain - France - Soviet - US
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor
1. What was the result of the US entering WWI?
2. How did Stalin's approach to communism differ from Marx's?
3. What was the effect of the Crusades?
4. What is mercantilism?
5. How were the Protest Reformation & European Renaissance similar?
6. Why did the German princes meet at Worms during the Reformation?
7. Who was Charles V?
8. What are Calvinists in Scotland called?
9. What development led to the rise of civilizations?
10. What do you know about WW2?
How do Allied Powers respond to Axis Aggression?
Increased industrial production
Increased size of military
Rationing & Recycling
Protecting the homeland
Restrictions on German, Japanese, & Italian Americans
Japanese Americans on West coast sent to internment camps
Recycling paper, metal scraps, rubber, clothes, even kitchen fat
Rationing fuel and food
Asking for volunteers to join armed forces
Shift from consumer goods to weapons & supplies
Allowed women & African Americans many employment opportunities
Fighting in the Soviet
Siege of Leningrad – 1 million civilians die from starvation when Germans block trade from city of Leningrad
Battle of Stalingrad
One of the largest cities in Soviet Union
Extremely bloody battle, Hitler & Stalin both refuse to surrender until remaining German soldiers are eventually captured
*Major turning point of the war!
Fighting in the Pacific
Fighting for the American held Philippines
America & poorly trained Filipino troops are no match for Japan
General Douglas MacArthur leads soldiers, but faces defeat
Bataan Death March – 70,000 captured American & Filipino troops march to prison camp in tropical heat with lack of food and water and brutal violence
Battle of Coral Sea
Japan is at height of power in May 1942
Battle off the northeast coast of Australia (Japan moving to invade British Port Moresby on the island of New Guinea)
Allies try to stop it – US takes a huge hit, but Japanese are stopped for first time
Battle of Midway
June 1942, Japanese try to capture island of Midway (a key US military base) & lure US fleet into Pacific Ocean to make attack easier
Japanese have more ships/carriers, but US had learn to decipher Japanese communication codes & knew the date & location of the planned attack
US wins! Japanese advantage had been overcome
Major turning point of the war!
US plan to skip over Japanese strongholds and capture weaker targets until they could get close to Japan
Not always easy – i.e. Battle of Guadalcanal – 6 month long battle in swamp and jungle covered island leading to man deaths
Response: Japanese get desperate and starting using kamikazes (Japanese pilots who loaded planes down with explosives and deliberately crashed into Allied ships)
End of the War
Battle of the Bulge
Battle of Iwo Jima
Battle of Okinawa
1. Who were the Allied Powers?
2. Who were the Axis Powers?
3. How did the war in the European realm begin?
4. How did the war in the Pacific realm begin?
5. What is the blitzkrieg strategy?
6. What is appeasement?
7. How have you participated in the War in Afghanistan?
After the Potsdam Conference, Truman was worried about Stalin’s willingness to compromise. He decided to ask him for a simple favor, and before he could even finish his request, Stalin interrupted him by shouting, “No!” – this shows the increasing tension between the US & Soviets leading up to the Cold War.
Problems from the Start
What to do with Eastern Europe?
period of tension between the Soviet & US in which direct battle does not occur
Different ideas on gov't
Ways of life
*Essentially, Capitalist Democracy vs. Communism*
Soviets take over most of Eastern Europe
Creates "Iron Curtain" between Soviet & rest of Europe
Soviet goes after Greece & Turkey
US responses with
- pledge to provide economic & military aid to oppose spread of communism
$13 billion to rebuild Western Europe to help it recover quickly and avoid vulnerability to communism
Difference between East & West
"Even before 1989, we were quite well-informed about what was happening in Western Germany. We knew that they had more money and bigger cars. My parents used to watch the West-German news on one of the West-German channels that everybody could capture. Many people watched those channels, even though it was not something they would publicly talk about."
Resist soviet aggression to contain communism
Soviets block off West Berlin land, rail, & water routes
British/US respond with Berlin Airlift (supply West Berlin with planes)
Airlift = success!
NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(US, Canada, most of western Europe)
1. What is appeasement?
2. How did people participate in WW2?
3. What was the Siege on Leningrad?
4. How did WW2 end in Europe?
5. How did WW2 end in the Pacific?
6. What happened at the Yalta Conference?
*Study for your quiz!*
Super Power Rivalries
Arms Race: Who can develop the most powerful weapons the quickest?
1945 - US uses atomic bomb in Japan
1949 - Soviet tested atomic bomb
1952 - US tested first hydrogen bomb
1953 - Soviet tested first hydrogen bomb
Develop & maintain a strong enough military to deter opposition from attacking you
First artificial satellite to orbit Earth
US responds by creating NASA in 1958
Civilians afraid of Nuclear War
Build bomb shelters in case of nuclear explosion
Schools had air-raid drills
Books/movies/comics about dangers of nuclear war
Red Scare - Americans fear Communist influence in US government. Senator Joseph McCarthy led committee to expose communism in America
Cold War continues...
Berlin Wall built
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuba led by Communist Fidel Castro
1961 - US plans to overthrow Castro in Bay of Pigs invasion, but fails
1962 - Soviet nuclear missiles/launching pad sited by US spy
Soviets say that missiles were placed to protect Cuba from attack, US fears otherwise
JFK & Soviets talk - agree to remove US missiles from Turkey & Soviet missiles from Cuba
Attempts to Slow Arms Race
1968 - Nixon initiates Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT I) to limit # of weapons held by each side
Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) - prevented development that could shoot down nuclear missiles, leaving both sides vulnerable to other's weapons
1. What was the Cold War?
2. Describe the struggles after WW2.
3. What were the Nuremberg Trials?
4. What is the iron curtain that Churchill referred to?
5. What did the Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan do?
6. What was the goal of containment?
7. Who joined NATO and who joined the Warsaw Pact?
Changes in Europe
Struggle after WW2 to rebuild - no longer the center of world power
Solution: Move towards unity to rival the US & Soviet by
creating European Economic Community (Common Market)
What about Eastern Europe?
Eastern Europe recovers, but not at the same rate
European Union - economic and political union of European Nations
Stalin helps rebuild Soviet quickly
Nikita Khrushchev "de-Stalinizes" Soviet Union
Mikhail Gorbachev proposes GLASTNOST ("openness" to address problems) and PERESTROIKA ("restructuring" meaning reform)
Gorbachev eventually pulls out of Eastern Europe, encouraging reform
Former Soviet-backed leaders fall quickly in revolutions (Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, East Germany)
With freedom to travel from east to west, East Germany gave in to opening Berlin Wall in 1989, people tear it down
Germany unites in less than a year!
USSR falls leaving 15 separate regions fighting for independence (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine)
Shifts to market economy instead of command (capitalist instead of communist)
Changes in the United States
1970s economy slows
Prosperity again in the 1980s
GI Bill effects
1948 - Integration in military
1954 - Brown vs. Board integrates schools
Martin Luther King, Jr. campaigns
1964 - Civil Rights Act
1965 - Voting Rights Act
Women's Rights (1960s-1970s)
Counterculture (rebellion against mainstream)
1. How did people respond to the Cold War?
2. What is the "arms race" and who is it between?
3. What is "deterrence"?
4. What was the Red Scare? Who led it in the US?
5. What happened between Cuba & the US?
6. Who were the most powerful nations in the 1950s-1980s?
Anschluss = "Link Up" of Germany & Austria
Einsatzgruppen = killing squads in Holocaust
Lebensraum = "living space," one reason for German expansion
Lend-Lease Agreement between Britain & US
Battle of Britain "We shall never surrender!"
Non-Aggression Pact between Soviet & Germany
Battle of Coral Sea - 1st time Japanese are stopped
Test Ban Treaty - after Cuban Missile Crisis
1. Name the Axis Powers.
2. Name the Allied Powers.
3. Why did Hitler think the Allies wouldn't do anything when he invaded Poland?
4. Why was the Soviet surprised when Germany invaded?
5. What is the significance of:
Battle of Stalingrad D-Day
Battle of Coral Sea Hiroshima/Nagasaki
Battle of Midway Berlin Crisis
6. What is the difference between deterrence, containment, & appeasement?
7. What was the significance of the SALT I, ABM, & Test Ban Treaties?
8. What is "perestroika" & "glastnost"? Who's idea were they?
25. Leonardo da Vinci
26. Medici family
28. Elizabeth I
29. Oliver Cromwell
31. Glorious Revolution
32. John Locke
34. 2nd Estate
37. Thomas Jefferson