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Transcript of Thorndike/Bruner/Piaget
Psychology Thorndike is considered a central figure in educational psychology. He transformed the field into a science based on empirical data gathered from experiments. For his doctoral dissertation, he studied animal intelligence using puzzle boxes to establish the law of effect. Personal life Thorndike was born on August 31, 1847 to a methodist minister family.
His family moved often and he
became very shy and introverted.
He enjoyed the lonely privacy of research. Personal life Personal life Quotes "Just as the science and art of agriculture depend upon chemistry and botany, so the art of education depends upon physiology and psychology."
"Nowhere more truly than in his mental capacities is man a part of nature."
~Edward Thorndike He married Elizabeth Mouton in 1900.
They had 4 children. Career highlights Received his master's degree from Harvard in 1897
PhD in from Columbia University in 1898
In 1899, Thorndike joined the faculty at Columbia U where he spent his entire career The law of effect-
Responses to stimuli that produce a satisfying or pleasant state of affairs in a particular situation are strengthened and become habitual. Thorndike set the groundwork for future educational psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner. Legacy Jerome Bruner was born blind with cataracts in 1915, had his vision restored
at an early age, and is still alive today. He served with the Allied Forces
in WWII as a member of the "Psychological Warfare Division".
He married three times and has two children. Quotes "Children, as they grow, must acquire ways of representing
the recurrent regularities in their environments." (1964) "Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to
any child at any stage of development." Legacy Because of his belief that narrative is essential for learning, Bruner advocated for "Discovery Learning" and "Inquiry Teaching" as necessary modes for delivering education. Bruner was sought after by the federal government to lead the reform of
the national science curriculum in
1959. Jerome Bruner was influenced significantly by the work of Jean Piaget in developing his new theory of "Constructivism". This new theory of education posited that children actively construct their own realities through the cognitive tools available to them: imagination and storytelling. Career Highlights Received his PhD from Harvard in 1941 where he went on to become instrumental in the "Cognitive Revolution" in Psychology. When Bruner decided to Leave Harvard University in 1972, he
moved "across the Pond" to teach at Oxford University where a building in
the education department now stands in his honor. Centered his career around the belief that both "context"
and "culture" form the basis of thought. Jean Piaget was born August 9, 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland. Piaget and his wife
Valentine Chatenay had three children. He died
in Geneva, Switzerland on September 17, 1980. Quotes "The principle goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simple repeating what other generations have done."
-Jean Piaget "It is with children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowlege, physical knowlege, and so forth."
- Jean Piaget Career Highlights He published his first paper at the age of 10. He received his Ph.D. in science from the
University of Neuchatel at age 22. In 1921 Piaget became the director of research
at the Jean-Jacque Rousseau Institute in Geneva. Piaget received 31 honorary docatorates, including
doctorates from Harvard, Manchester, and Cambridge. Legacy Theory of Cognitive Development
Consists of four stages.
Bruner, J.S. (1983). In Search of Mind. New York: Harper & Row.
Crace, J. (Interviewer) & Bruner, J.S. (Interviewee). (2007). Jerome Bruner: The lesson of the story [Interview summary]. Retrieved from Guardian News and Media Limited web site: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2007/mar/27/ academicexperts.highereducationprofile
Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Boston: Pearson.
Evans, R.L.(1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. New York.
Zimmerman, B. J., Schunk, D. H. (2003). Educational psychology: a century of contributions. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates. Summary:
Thorndike, Piaget, and Bruner are considered leaders in the field of educational psychology. Each made significant contributions leading the field from its beginnings in the early 1900s to its rise to prominence in the mid to late 1900s. The theories they established continue to influence the field of educational psychology today. Stage 1: Sensorimotor
Description: Reflex base, Coordinates reflexes.
Age: 0-2 Stage 2: Preoperational
Description: Self-oriented, Egocentric
Age: 2-6 or 7 Stage 3: Concrete Operational
Description: More than one view point, Consider some outcomes
Age: 6 or 7 - 11 or 12 Stage 4: Formal Operational
Description: Think abstractly, Reason theortically, Not all people reach this stage.
Age: 11 or 12 and up Jerome Bruner participated in the cognitive revolution, and
was influenced by the work of Jean Piaget.