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Volcanoes- Hannah Kimball

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Hannah Kimball

on 12 April 2011

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Transcript of Volcanoes- Hannah Kimball

. Volcanoes!
Hannah Kimball q. 1 q2 By: Hannah Kimball Question 1. Illustrate and explain how
volcanic eruptions are constructive. Volcanoes are constructive forces because the hardend lava turns into igneous rock and builds up Earths's land surface. They are also beneficial in the way that the ash helps develop plant life. Volcanoes also build land by erupting underwater and making islands. A good example of this are the islands of Hawaii. Question 2. Illustrate and explain how
volcanic eruptions are destructive. Volcanic eruptions can change immediate weather patterns. They can induce cloud cover and storms. The lava flow destroys everything and anything in its path. Lava flows are known to take out entire forests with one passing. Volcanoes, when they erupt, emit toxic gases. There are four main main gases. Carbon dioxide, sulfuric acid aerosol, fluorine, and chlorine. Volcanoes are responsible for dumping 10 billion tons of carbon dioxide (per year) into the atmosphere. Sulfuric acid aerosol blocks the sun, causing cooler global temperatures. Fluorine is deadly to humans and animals alike and it mixes with the rain and coats grass and other plants killing them as well. Chlorine is actually first emitted as hydrochloric acid and it slowly destroys the ozone layer. Volcanoes also cause mudslides. When they erupt they discharge large quantities of ash which is harmful when inhaled but it covers everything with a thick layer. Question 3. Where and on what
plate boundry are volcanoes common? Volcanoes are most common on convergent plate boundries. The subducting plate is turned into magma and then erupted. Question 4. What is this area called? This area is called the ring of fire. It is located in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean. The eastern part of it is the small Nazca and Cocos Plates crashing into the South American Plate.The northern part of it is the Pacific Plate colliding into the Aleutian Islands Arc and the Juan de Fuca smashing into the North American Plate. The Pacific Plate crunching into the Kamchatka plate is the western portion of this landform. The western chunk of this extends from the Kurile Island arcs all the way south past Japan. Lastly, the southern part of the Ring of Fire consists of several small plates crunching into the Pacific Plate. This extends from the Mariana Islands, through the Philippines, and to New Zealand. Question 5. Describe what lava is and how is is related to magma. Lava is molten rock expelled by a volcano. It usually is around 700˚ C to 1,200˚ C. That's about 1,300˚ F to 2,200˚ F. When lava solidifies it turns into igneous rock. There are three types of lava: Silicic, Intermediate, and Basaltic. Silicic lava has a high viscosity and strength. It's high in silica, aluminium, potassium, sodium, calcium, feldspar, and quartz. Intermediate lower in aluminum and silica, higher in iron and magnesium, and hotter and less viscous than silicic lava. Basaltic lava is known for its high ferromagnesian levels. It has a very low viscosity even though it is still 1,000 times more viscous than water. Magma and lava are related because they are basically the same substances they have only two differences. Their location (magma is underground while lave is above ground) and the fact that magma contains dissolved chemicals in it that are released as gases when it is erupted. Lava doesn't contain these chemicals after it has spouted from the ground. Question 6. Identify the layer of the Earth that magma surfaces from. Magma comes from deep within the mantle in magma chambers. These magma chambers could be up to 200km beneath Earth's surface. Magma never actually surfaces. It is only considered magma while it is underground. If it was to surface, it would come out of the crust and it would be called lava. Question 7. What is the opening that magma flows from? The opening that magma flows from is the vent. Volcanoes normally have a circular centeral vent near summit. Some volcanoes even have side vents on their sides to let more magma escape. Volcanoes!
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