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Communication Development from Birth to 2 years

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Ilena De Menech

on 4 November 2016

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Transcript of Communication Development from Birth to 2 years

Communication Development from Birth to 2 years
Child Directed Speech
Predictability of Language Growth
Background
This chapter emphasizes: -infant/adult interactions that create a communication environment conductive to speech and language development-the receptive component of the infant’s communication system-the emergence of expressive language including early words, early conversational skills and word combinations-syntax development focussing on units of speech and documenting growth-the role of early literacy in language acquisition

Role of the Caregiver
From the Beginning
Expansion
Children have a biological drive to acquire language, but language acquisition is associate with the child’s cognitive development and exposure
A child just listening to language is not enough for them to acquire language, they need interaction with their family members to develop vocabulary
A caregiver expanding on a child’s utterances
If a child says “mommy work” the mother would respond to the child with “ yes mommy went to work”
The mother does not add any words she maintains what she believes is the child’s communicative intent: she expands the utterance to a complete form

Extensions
Imitates what the child said when this happens the child will imitate the imitation and create turn taking
Rewarded for successful communication and encourages the child’s language development
Syntactic accurate and semantic information
“Daddy go” “Yes daddy went to work”

References
Hulit, L. M., Howard, M. R., & Fahey, K. R. (2011). In the beginning: Communication development from birth to 2 years. In J. W. Johnston (Ed.), Born to Talk: An Introduction to Speech and Language Development (5 ed., pp. 117-185). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Resources Home: LENA pro system Overview: use and reports . (2011). Retrieved October 8, 2013, from LENA: http://www.lenafoundation.org/Resources/Default.aspx

Youtube
Stages of Language Development
Speech, Language & Hearing Milestones: 1 to 2 Years - Preview
Language Development - Parents and their baby with language development
This Old Man
7 and a half month old baby babbling
Videos
Stages of Language Development
Speech, Language & Hearing Milestones: 1 to 2 Years - Preview
Language Development - Parents and their baby with language development
This Old Man
Babbling is the term used for repeated consonant-vowel (CV) syllables, ex. Ma
5 months: ‘marginal babbling’ occurs which is composed of vowel-like sounds
6 months: ‘true babbling’
6/7 months: ‘reduplicated babbling’, ex. Mamama
Babbling occurs independently/ alone
Sounds produced vary, limited by limitations of speech mechanisms

Front consonants
Some intonation contours produced during cooing disappear
Productions depend on self-hearing
8-12 mos: echolalia, parrot-like imitation of sounds, syllables, words produced by someone else; reversal of imitation


Variegated Babbling and Jargon
7-8 mos: jargon babbling, incorporate intonational contours into vocalizations
9 mos: produce vocables, performatives, protowords
9-18 mos: variegated babbling, consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV), ex. Badaga, Didedi

Development of Communcation Functions
True Babbling
Perlocutionary Stage (0-8 mos)
Infant response to environment is reflexive
Goal-directed behaviours appear near end, gestures serve as response to parents/ to initiate interaction
Illocutionary Stage (8-12 mos)
Gestures and vocalizations combined to express specific/ recognizable communicative functions
Locutionary Stage (1year+)
Imitation/ pointing to show intentionality

Intentionality
Deictic gestures
call attention to/ indicate an object or event
ex. ‘It’s right here!’
Representational gestures
signify some features of an object or its function,
ex. Pretending to eat with a spoon. (seen at 1 year)
Eye gaze: direct attention of caregiver (8mos), alter behaviour of caregiver (12mos)
Reaching, pushing away, giving an object, pointing, waving, showing (all with or without eye contact) (8-11mos)

Gestural development to regulate others:
5.5 months: looking and vocalizations
14.5 months: word with reaching/ pointing in between
Behaviour for social interaction:
6.5 months: shows interest
1.5 years: excitement gestures
Gain joint attention:
7 mos- 1.5 years: looking, showing, giving, pointing, using words with rising intonation, gestures to clarify words
Gestures appear in overlapping function
Transitional and True Babbling
Pointing
Way to interact further with people, things, events (1 year)
Debate:
Pointing without looking has no communicative intent vs. adult behaviour influences infant pointing.
Study:
1 year olds tailored gestures to adults visual availability.
Functional use of gestures develops
Halliday:
Four Communicative Intents- instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal
Bates:
protodeclaratives (child points to object/ event of joint focus by adult and child), protoimpairative (gestures used by child to control/ manipulate behaviours of others)
Presupposition and Conversational Turn Taking
Presupposition:
assumption the speaker makes concerning what the listener knows about the conversations
Exists as single-word stage
Children reference ‘here and now’
Development continues through preschool
Turn-taking
Exists prelinguistically, more ‘adult-like’ with language development
18 mos: understands basic turn taking rules of conversation
Mid-Review
12mos:
first meaningful word
18mos:
50 expressive word vocabulary- nouns, no actions or modifiers
Name things, request something, control others behaviour, or express emotion
Words used with wider/ narrower meaning
Minimal understanding of conversation
Knowledge of listeners knowledge, do not repeat redundant information
Basic body language and intonation
Social Routines: Songs,Rhymes and Stories
Infant Directed Singing
Occurs in all cultures and is considered universal caregiver behavior
Lullabies and playtime songs
Lullabies elicit sleep and inward attention
Playtime songs elicit high positive emotion and increase stimulation
Mother infants and singing
Mothers convey many aspects of human development
Convey emotional information –melodies help the child shift attention
Synchronize emotional states –leads to social regulation
Establish a secure relationship- important for development of attachment
Contribute three major ways
• Emotional aspects increase arousal and attention
• Pitch contours may enhance phonological discriminations
• Consistent mapping of musical and linguistic structures may optimize the operation of learning mechanisms
Benefits for at risk infants who are premature, maternal attachment and emotional difficulties
Singing has stress reducing effect on infants in the NICU
Differ from talking to children- songs have a quality and continuous melody in a repeated pattern
Redundant or repeated information is easier to process
Rhymes
Patterned alliterations
Highly entertaining- attention is on facial expressions, clapping and other sound effects
Provide joint interaction and development of rhymes with gestures- attribute to the social relationship
Infants as young as 3 months can detect alliteration in syllables –focus on the beginning consonants of the words
By 6 months they can comprehend some words and begin to segment words from speech by 7.5 months
They can later attends to vowel and final consonants and detect changes( subtle) in development
Rime un can be used to create words by switching the consonants Fun, Run, Sun, Won
Rhymes for children tend to be a t the end of the phrase, poem or song
Stories
Simple no expectation for turn taking and minimal interaction with the child and mother
All stories in western culture have a setting, a leading event, an episode, and conclusion and an end
The more the children hear the stories they will learn the structure of the book or story and learn to know or expect what is coming next.

Since the introduction of children’s programs
1year olds and 3 year olds spend 80 minutes per day in front of the TV and 2 year olds spend 2h per day
Reduced speech for caregivers and infants is harmful for language acquisition and brain development
Study done tested children’s ability to learn new words by a children’s program or a by an adult
Both children identified thee target words in the reference condition. Higher attention to the adults was more beneficial than the attention to children programs
The young children and toddlers performed fast mapping tasks when they received information from an adult, but only older children befitted from the television programs
Even though children can connect with the television programs they may not know what to focus on during fast mapping
Exposure to language is not enough for teaching new words the child needs engagement with an adult to stimulate their learning

TV can be used as a supplemental strategy for exposure
Songs rhymes and stories show a strong developmental foundation for the children’s speech perception structure and literacy
Early Stage 1
Characteristics
Children use one word utterances
Can express relations such as: existence, nonexistence, disappearance and recurrence
It can be very difficult to interpret meaning

Bloom (1973)
Words repeated in succession are still evidence of one word utterances
Meaningless word with meaningful intonation (e.g., "wida")
Strings of single word utterances (e.g., "Go, car, ride“) – They each have equal stress, and falling intonation on each word

Branigan (1979)
Pauses between words may cause them to appear as single word utterances – however prosodic variations make the string sentence-like
The last word in a string of words often has a longer duration
Suggests children are putting words together, even if we don't understand the meaning

Late Stage 1
Characteristics
Children typically put 2 word utterances together between 18-24 months.
Represents beginning of language -- child applies rules to create meaning (syntax)
The use of two word utterances generates more meaning than the previous one word utterances (e.g., "Daddy go")
Use context to interpret meaning
Near the end of Late Stage 1, child may start to use three and four word utterances
Syntax
It is impossible to determine the meaning of a child’s speech without “communicative context”
Example: Child says “Mommy sock” “This sock belongs to Mommy” “Mommy is putting the sock on my foot”
The process of using the context in determining meaning is called “rich interpretation” – used to help guide research of children’s language
Semantics
Children are aware of things and actions in their lives, and their language expresses this at their intellectual level
Two word utterances reflect a child’s understanding of meaning relations and rules for word order

Pragmatics
Communicative intent: children expressing intentions before they begin to use words
When a child uses words, puts two words together, and then strings of words, they are able to communicate more intentions
Turn taking - one speaks and one listens
Pragmatics
Pragmatic: language is used to get things done. Intent is to satisfy needs by making requests, demands and controlling the behaviour of others
Mathetic: language is used to learn about oneself and the world around you. Language, though limited, reflects intellectual development
Informative: language is used to give new information to others.
Comprehension and Production
We may underestimate a child’s comprehension based on their production
It is widely believed that receptive language precedes expressive language
Is it more complicated than that?
Children start to use words before they have a grasp of the meaning
Example: Using “doggy” to refer to all four- legged animals
This does not show adult-like comprehension

MLU: 1.0-1.5 Age: 12-24 months
MLU: 1.5-2.0 Age: 22-26 months

Beyond Infancy: The Emergence of Language
First Words
Emerge somewhere between 11 to 14 months
They start to say their first words at this time but already know the meaning of many words
First words:
used to reference items in their environment
social greetings
simple requests
They may not contain all the sounds of the adult version
First Word Characteristics
May be
one syllable
two syllables
one repeated syllable
They are consonant and vowel combinations that include: include:
CV
VC
CVCV
First Word Characteristics
Overextension- use of one word to help them express different meanings.

Underextension- the meaning for a word is now too narrow and only represents one specific item.
Classifying First Words
Bloom (1973)
2 main types:
Substantive words: refer to objects or events that have perceptual or functional features in common.
Relational Words: reflects the child’s understanding of object permanence and causality.

Classifying First Words
5categories:
Nominals
Specific
General
Action words
Modifiers
Personal-social words
Functional words
Infant/ Adult Interactions
Baby Talk, also referred to as motherese, parentese or child-directed speech plays an important role in facilitating language development
During face to face interactions, infants tune in to speech sounds, pitch variations, stress and melody of their parents utterances as well as facial expressions, movements and gestures

Characteristics of Motherese
More emphasis on components of speech including pitch, rate, loudness, stress, rhythm and intonation than on the words themselves
Uses repetition and utterances are semantically similar to one another
EX: Focus is on the infant: “oh pretty baby!”“Yes you’re so pretty!
EX: Focus is on an object: “Look at baby bear!”“Soft baby bear”“So soft, look at baby bear!”
Characteristics of Motherese
One important part of motherese that seems to transcend speech is rhythm
The rhythm of speech directed at babies is more regular than that of adult speech, which results in a singsong cadence
Mothers use individually distinctive pitch patterns that may play an important role in establishing identification and preference for a mothers voice over other voices

Characteristics of Motherese
By 6 months, mothers tend to use an informational style of talking; less centered on objects and more centered on their infants behaviour and environment
When infants begin babbling, caregivers respond with social feedback which provides them with information for vocal learning
Goldstein and Schwade (2008) found that 9 month olds modified their babbling in accordance with the type of phonological structure present in their caregivers utterances
Socially guided learning is important in early vocal development as a foundational step in establishing communication development
It is debated whether infants are innately tuned to the characteristics of motherese or prefer it because it is used by caregivers for social interaction
Even if it cannot be determined whether motherese is the product of genetics or environment, we can appreciate the role it plays in early communication acquisition

Joint Attention in Communication
There are 2 essential components of preverbal behaviour during an infants first year 1. Caregiver’s interest in and adaptation of his communications to the infants abilities (using turn taking fashion)2. The infants corresponding interaction through motor activity and demonstration of feeling (laughing, cooing)
Thus, interplay of contingent responding becomes linked successively and allows for mutual reciprocity and understanding
Contingency
Contingency is important for the infants development of self awareness and efficacy
Interactions with the self (mirror play) and others appears to be a developmental process that begins around 2 months of age
Sets the stage for caregivers to introduce the infant to others and objects in the environment

Joint Focus/Attention
Caregiver and child are focusing on the same object or event at the same time
Joint reference is a basis for shared experiences
Emerges at 2 months with gaze following
At 3 months, infants will shift their gaze to follow the adults shift in eye direction
At 5-10 months there is emergence of coordinated attention and point following as well as means-end
At 15-21 months infants respond to gaze shifts with points and gaze-with-directing vocalizations

Joint Focus/AttentionNotes
Younger infants allocate their attentional resources to adults rather than objects
Social context is an important aspect of the development of joint attention
Older infants use complex cue integration processes to decide where and when to allocate their attention
Conversation
Conversations between caregiver and infant show developmental trends
Initially, communication exchanges are simple and child-directed, an frequent (answering the child if she smiles)
As children mature in to their first year, mothers increase their expectations and demands by being more selective in their responses to child vocalized sounds rather than noises; to maintain turn-taking, mothers often imitated child’s utterances
At the end of the first year there is stronger emphasis on speech-like behaviours in terms of what is “socially acceptable”; mothers often interpret utterances as real words
Conversation becomes more adult-like as children begin to produce true words (approx. 12 months) and then as they begin to produce multiple word utterances (approx. 18 months)
A child’s language competence correlates with the amount of language they encounter from their caregiver
A child’s rate of vocabulary growth, word use, and IQ score relate to the number of parent words spoken to them per hour
The more parents talk to their child, the higher the child’s vocabulary and IQ test scores at age 3 and the stronger the child’s language skills at age 9 and 10

Language Environment Analysis (LENA)
Adult Word Count (AWC)
Conversational Turns (CTs)
Child Vocalizations (CVs)
The amount of parent talk relates directly to the amount of child talk
The more adult words children were exposed to, the higher their language ability scores were a year or more later
During the first few months children did not differ much in the number of vocalizations in relation to the amount of parent talk; the difference became apparent before children were 5 months old, the gap widening, especially in the first 3 years
Predictability of Language Growth
What are the effects of low or high amounts of talking on the language development of children, especially within the first 6 months and beyond?
Parents have an important role as language teachers for their children

Gilterson and Richards Study (2008)
27 children involved
the more adult word children were exposed to , the higher their language ability skills were a year later
Therefore the more talking from the parents the better

Applicability of Child-Adult Interaction Data
An important finding:
children with autism engage in fewer conversation turns (CT) than typically developing children do
Evidence from a LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) study shows that language therapy can be very beneficial with a positive outcome for autism
AWC (adult word count) is much higher during therapy than during home interaction

Variability in parent talk from home to home
what is the amount of talking the parents are doing in the home? (high or low talkers?)
influences how talkative their children will become
within a home there are peak and low talking time during the day
implications include:
education (making programs more available)
early intervention (for parents)
public policy (promote early childhood development)
research (explore relationship in language development between children with language disabilities and typically developing children
Ready to Receive Language: Perception and Comprehension of Words
first birthday is a milestone for first words
however, during language development prior to this milestone there is lots happening too!


Hearing
It is critical for babies to hear and perceive sounds/speech in order to learn words
1 to 6 babies out of 1000 are born with hearing loss
As auditory info is heard by a child speech and language development depends on 6 perceptual abilities:
attend specifically to speech
discriminate (tell the difference) between speech sounds
remember a sequence of speech sounds in the correct order
discriminate between sequences of speech sounds
compare a sequence of speech sounds to a model stores in memory
make discriminations among international patterns
Phonotactics
Each language has its own collection of individual sounds, and each language has its own rules governing the place of those sounds and how they work together
Phonotactic rules: specify which sounds occur in a sequence
Only certain consonants and combinations of consonants are acceptable in the English language
We combine consonants and vowels in many ways; CVC-bug, CCCVC-scream, CVCC-farm
How do infants in their first years sort out the sounds, syllable, intonational patterns, and words to understand the meaning of even a few words, and then continue to learn word meaning at such a fast place into their second year?
fast mapping: the process whereby children hear and understand words
associated with the large vocabulary spurt that children have at about 2 years of age
typical child acquires a vocabulary of 500 words by age 3

Word Learning
To comprehend the meaning of a word, the child begins with hearing the word (auditory cue) that activates their memory about the sounds and syllables of the word (phonological representation) stored previously. Activation then spreads from the phonological level to the word meaning (semantic) level, where given sufficient activation of the associated concept, the word is comprehended.
words that are of similar phonetic structure are more easily learnt, and words that are dissimilar in phonetic structure are not as easily learnt
Three Perspectives to Learning Word Meanings
Semantic feature hypothesis: each word has its own set of semantic features that distinguishes it from other words.
Functional core hypothesis: Early word meanings are learned primarily on the basis of the function of objects
Prototype hypothesis: Early word meanings are based on the child's first experience with the object the word represents.
Slow-Mapping
The process of expanding and fine-tuning word meanings
Lengthily process that occurs over a period of years

Twinkle Twinkle little star

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