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E4: William Butler Yeats

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john meehan

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of E4: William Butler Yeats

47 years of published poetry William Butler Yeats 1865-1939 1916 - Iseult Gonne MAUDE GONNE 1891, 1899, 1900 and 1901 LADY GREGORY OLIVIA SHAKESPEAR major symbols GEORGIE YEATS DREAMS Irish poet, author, playwright, and politician. 1889: Publishes first collection of poems

1889: Meets Maud Gonne

1891: Proposes to Maud Gonne

1896: Affair with Olivia Shakespear

1899: Founds the Abbey Theatre 1917: Marries Georgie Hyde-Lees

1919: Daughter, Anne, is born

1921: Son, Michael, is born

1923: Wins the Nobel Prize

1939: Dies IMPORTANT DATES & EVENTS master of poetic symbolism The Wild Swans at Coole (1919)
143 The Wild Swans at Coole
145 An Irish Airman forsees his Death
146 Men improve with the Years
149 Solomon to Sheba
157 Lines written in Dejection Last Poems (1938-1939)
356 Under Ben Bulben
358 The Black Tower
359 Cuchulain Comforted
373 The Circus Animals Desertion Crossways (1889)
10 The Stolen Child
11 To an Isle in the Water
12 Down by the Salley Gardens
15 The Ballad of Moll Magee The Rose (1893)
17 To the Rose upon the Rood of Time
19 Cuchulain’s Fight with the Sea
23 A Faery Song
24 The Lake Isle of Innisfree
28 When You are Old The Wind Among the Reeds (1899)
40 The Hosting of the Sidhe
59 The Cap and Bells
74 He wishes for the Cloths of Heaven
76 The Fiddler of Dooney In the Seven Woods (1904)
77 In the Seven Woods
81 Never give all the Heart
83 Adam’s Curse
84 Red Hanrahan’s Song about Ireland
86 Under the Moon The Green Helmet and Other Poems (1910)
92 A Woman Homer sung
94 No Second Troy
104 The Mask
108 At Galway Races
111 Brown Penny Responsibilities (1914)
116 To a Friend whose Work has come to Nothing
117 Paudeen
118 To a Shade
123 Beggar to Beggar cried
127 The Realists
139 The Magi
141 A Coat Michael Robartes and the Dancer (1921)
189 Michael Robartes and the Dancer
190 Solomon and the Witch
193 Easter, 1916
194 Sixteen Dead Men
200 The Second Coming The Tower (1928)
204 Sailing to Byzantium
205 The Tower
220 Leda and the Swan
222 Among Schoolchildren The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1933)
242 A Dialogue of Self and Soul
253 Coole Park, 1929
260 Byzantium
268 I. Crazy Jane And The Bishop
269 II. Crazy Jane Reproved
270 III. Crazy Jane and Jack the Journeyman
271 IV. Crazy Jane On The Day Of Judgment
272 V. Crazy Jane On God
273 VI. Crazy Jane Talks With The Bishop
274 VII. Crazy Jane Grown Old Looks At The Dancers Parnell’s Funeral and Other Poems (1935)
275 Parnell’s Funeral New Poems (1938)
321 The Gyres
323 Imitated from the Japanese
324 Sweet Dancer
337 The Curse of Cromwell
351 The Old Stone Cross
352 The Spirit Medium
354 The Municipal Gallery Revisited Yeats' Poetry Collections 374 poems published in 13 collections over 47 years Michael (1921) Anne (1919) 1899: Proposes to Maud Gonne (2)

1900: Proposes to Maud Gonne (3)

1901: Proposes to Maud Gonne (4)

1903: Maud Marries John MacBride

1905: Maud's Marriage Crumbles 1908: Consummates Affair with Maud

1916: Easter Rising. John MacBride executed.

1916: Proposes to Maud Gonne (5)

1916: Proposes to Iseult Gonne

1916: Purchases Thoor Ballylee THE COLLECTIONS 17 To the Rose upon the Rood of Time
19 Cuchulain’s Fight with the Sea
23 A Faery Song
24 The Lake Isle of Innisfree
28 When You are Old The Rose (1893) Irish Identity
Faith and Religion
Interpenetration
Liminality
Magic
Mythology THE PEOPLE 40 The Hosting of the Sidhe
59 The Cap and Bells
74 He wishes for the Cloths of Heaven
76 The Fiddler of Dooney The Wind Among the Reeds (1899) Michael Robartes

Aedh

Red Hanrahan fire burning by itself.
frankincense & myrrh. fire reflected in water.
the adoration of the shepherds. fire blown by the wind.
the adoration of the Magi. Real People Irish Folklore Knocknarea
Tír na nÓg
Clooth-na-Bare
Sidhe
Niamh
Oisin
Caoilte Fionn
Fianna
Grania
Diarmuid
Cromlech
Emer
Cuchulain
Innisfree M
A
S
K
S Maude Gonne


Olivia Shakespear (real problems) from "The Rose" From "The Wind Among the Reeds" Rosicrucianism

The Order of the Golden Dawn In the Seven Woods (1904) 77 In the Seven Woods
81 Never give all the Heart
83 Adam’s Curse
84 Red Hanrahan’s Song about Ireland
86 Under the Moon 1903:
Maud Gonne marries John MacBride 1899: The Abbey Theatre Lady Gregory (a.k.a. The Irish National Theatre) The Seven Woods (a.k.a. Coole Park) conversational
accessible
dramatic Yeats poetry becomes more... An IRISH stage for IRISH plays THE MASK OF THE WORLD MICHAEL ROBARTES
RED HANRAHAN
AEDH Cathleen
Ni Houlihan Brycelinde
Merlin
Avalon
Arthur
Guinevere


Mabinogion
Lyr
Branwen

Aengus
Laban
Fand
Maeve ENGLISH WELSH IRISH 92 A Woman Homer sung
94 No Second Troy
104 The Mask
108 At Galway Races
111 Brown Penny The Green Helmet and Other Poems (1910) In the play, Cuchulain is named the bravest warrior in all of Ulster, and he is given the Green Helmet as a reward. "The Green Helmet" is the title of a Yeats play (1910),
one of five plays he wrote about the life of Cuchulain. YEATS Stonehenge Adam & Eve Metaphysical Poets Aurthurian Legend Romanticism Wordsworth Irish Myth Masks Beowulf Existentialism Liminality Shakespeare Wilde Cromwell and Irish History and Courtly Love Moderism MAKING CONNECTIONS The Greek god ZEUS transforms into a SWAN and rapes Leda, the wife of the king of sparta. Cuchulain The Irish god LUGH transforms into a HAWK and impregnates Deichtine, the wife of an Irish warlord. Helen of Troy In Greek Mythology... In Irish Mythology... 116 To a Friend whose Work has come to Nothing
117 Paudeen
118 To a Shade
123 Beggar to Beggar cried
127 The Realists
139 The Magi
141 A Coat Responsibilities (1914)
PARDON, old fathers, if you still remain
Somewhere in ear-shot for the story’s end,
Old Dublin merchant ‘free of ten and four’
Or trading out of Galway into Spain;
And country scholar, Robert Emmet’s friend, 5
A hundred-year-old memory to the poor;
Traders or soldiers who have left me blood
That has not passed through any huxter’s loin,
Pardon, and you that did not weigh the cost,
Old Butlers when you took to horse and stood 10
Beside the brackish waters of the Boyne
Till your bad master blenched and all was lost;
You merchant skipper that leaped overboard
After a ragged hat in Biscay Bay,
You most of all, silent and fierce old man 15
Because you were the spectacle that stirred
My fancy, and set my boyish lips to say
‘Only the wastful virtues earn the sun’;
Pardon that for a barren passion’s sake,
Although I have come close on forty-nine 20
I have no child, I have nothing but a book,
Nothing but that to prove your blood and mine.
January 1914. Ezra Pound 1885-1972 American poet and editor IMAGIST POETRY John Millington Synge "The Playboy of the Western World" (1909) Hugh Lane
Dublin Municipal Gallery (1913) (Lady Gregory's nephew) Irish play that caused riots Proposed Gallery donation caused major controversy 1. Which class of people did Yeats admire the most? Why?
2. Which class of people did Yeats dislike the most? Why?
3. Whereabouts can Yeats' "Paudeen" character be found?
4. What is Yeats opinion of the Realists?
5. What did Yeats make his "Coat" out of? Responsibilities... To Irish People
To Irish Theatre
To Irish Poetry
To Irish Art 143 The Wild Swans at Coole
145 An Irish Airman foresees his Death
146 Men improve with the Years
149 Solomon to Sheba
157 Lines written in Dejection The Wild Swans at Coole (1919) Patrick Pearse and James Connolly organize 200+ men in a takeover of British buildings around Ireland. Monday, April 24, 1916 The Easter Rising Six-day standoff
3400+ arrested 1400+ imprisoned
16 executed including John MacBride 189 Michael Robartes and the Dancer
190 Solomon and the Witch
193 Easter, 1916
194 Sixteen Dead Men
200 The Second Coming Michael Robartes and the Dancer (1921) Part I: Part II: Part III: people identification (6 questions)
a) Who are they?
b) In which poem?
c) Significance? { { mask identification (4 questions)
a) Which mask is which?
b) In which poem?
c) Significance? essay
ONE THEME across THREE POEMS Thoor Ballylee Georgie Hyde-Lees 204 Sailing to Byzantium
205 The Tower
220 Leda and the Swan
222 Among Schoolchildren The Tower (1928) "The Tower" is a thematic "mirror" of the poems in "The Winding Stair" Masculine
Bitter
Sterility
Dejection Feminine
Amiable
Sexuality
Joy THE TOWER THE WINDING STAIR That is no country for old men. The young
In one another's arms, birds in the trees
—Those dying generations—at their song,
The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,
Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long
Whatever is begotten, born, and dies.
Caught in that sensual music all neglect
Monuments of unageing intellect.

An aged man is but a paltry thing,
A tattered coat upon a stick, unless
Soul clap its hands and sing, and louder sing
For every tatter in its mortal dress,
Nor is there singing school but studying
Monuments of its own magnificence;
And therefore I have sailed the seas and come
To the holy city of Byzantium. O sages standing in God's holy fire
As in the gold mosaic of a wall,
Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,
And be the singing-masters of my soul.
Consume my heart away; sick with desire
And fastened to a dying animal
It knows not what it is; and gather me
Into the artifice of eternity.

Once out of nature I shall never take
My bodily form from any natural thing,
But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make
Of hammered gold and gold enamelling
To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;
Or set upon a golden bough to sing
To lords and ladies of Byzantium
Of what is past, or passing, or to come. SAILING TO BYZANTIUM A sudden blow: the great wings beating still
Above the staggering girl, her thighs caressed
By the dark webs, her nape caught in his bill,
He holds her helpless breast upon his breast.

How can those terrified vague fingers push
The feathered glory from her loosening thighs?
And how can body, laid in that white rush,
But feel the strange heart beating where it lies?

A shudder in the loins engenders there
The broken wall, the burning roof and tower
And Agamemnon dead.
Being so caught up,
So mastered by the brute blood of the air,
Did she put on his knowledge with his power
Before the indifferent beak could let her drop? LEDA AND THE SWAN 242 A Dialogue of Self and Soul
253 Coole Park, 1929
260 Byzantium
268 I. Crazy Jane And The Bishop
269 II. Crazy Jane Reproved
270 III. Crazy Jane and Jack the Journeyman
271 IV. Crazy Jane On The Day Of Judgment
272 V. Crazy Jane On God
273 VI. Crazy Jane Talks With The Bishop
274 VII. Crazy Jane Grown Old Looks At The Dancers The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1933) Crazy Janey and the mission man
Were back in the alley tradin' hands
Along came Wild Billy with his friend G-man
All duded up for Saturday night

Well Billy slammed on his coaster brakes
and said "anybody wanna go on up to Greasy Lake?
It's about a mile down on the dark side
Of route eighty-eight
I got a bottle of rose so let's try it

We'll pick up Hazy Davy and Killer Joe
And I'll take you all out to where the gypsy angels go
They're built like light and they dance...

Like spirits in the night (all night) in the night (all night)
Oh, you don't know what they can do to you
Spirits in the night (all night), in the night (all night)
Stand right up now and let it shoot through you

Well now Wild young Billy was a crazy cat
and he shook some dust out of his coonskin cap.
He said, "Trust some of this it'll show you where you're at,
or at least it'll help you really feel it"

By the time we made it up to Greasy Lake
I had my head out the window and Janey's fingers were in the cake
I think I really dug her 'cause I was too loose to fake
I said, "I'm hurt." She said, "Honey let me heal it". "Spirit in the Night" (Bruce Springsteen) DUSK DAWN 356 Under Ben Bulben
358 The Black Tower
359 Cuchulain Comforted
373 The Circus Animals Desertion 275 Parnell’s Funeral 321 The Gyres
323 Imitated from the Japanese
324 Sweet Dancer
337 The Curse of Cromwell
351 The Old Stone Cross
352 The Spirit Medium
354 The Municipal Gallery Revisited Last Poems (1938-1939) New Poems (1938) Parnell’s Funeral and Other Poems (1935)

And we danced all night to a soul fairy band
And she kissed me just right like only a lonely angel can
She felt so nice, just as soft as...

A spirit in the night (all night)
In the night (all night).
Janey don't know what she do to you
Like a spirit in the night (all night), in the night (all night)
Stand right up and let her shoot through me.

Now the night was bright and the stars threw light
on Billy and Davy dancin' in the moonlight
They were down near the water in a stone mud fight
Killer Joe gone passed out on the lawn

Well now Hazy Davy got really hurt,
He ran into the lake in just his socks and a shirt
Me and Crazy Janey was makin' love in the dirt
Singin' our birthday songs

Janey said it was time to go
So we closed our eyes and said goodbye
To gypsy angel row, felt so right
Together we moved like...

Spirits in the night, all night
Baby don't know what they can do to you
Spirits in the night, all night
Stand right up and let it shoot right through you This is the first national ad campaign that Tommy Hilfiger ever launched.

What is the purpose of an ad like this? What makes this ad so effective? about a mile down the road from... Thor Ballylee Coole Park Under my window-ledge the waters race,
Otters below and moor-hens on top,Run for a mile undimmed in Heaven’s face
Then darkening through ‘dar’ Raftery’s ‘cellar’ drop,
Run underground, rise in a rocky place
In Coole demesne, and there to finish up
Spread to a lake and drop into a hole.
- Coole and Ballylee, 1931 Tell me the legends of long ago
When the kings and queens
Would dance in the realm of the Black Rose
Play me the melodies I want to know
So I can teach my children, oh

Pray tell me the story of young CuChulainn
How his eyes were dark his expression sullen
And how he'd fight and always won
And how they cried when he was fallen

Oh tell me the story of the Queen of this land
And how her sons died at her own hand
And how fools obey commands
Oh tell me the legends of long ago

Where the mountains of Mourne come down to the sea
Will she no come back to me
Will she no come back to me

Oh Shenandoah I hear you calling
Far away you rolling river
Roll down the mountain side
On down on down go lassie go
Oh Tell me the legends of long ago
When the kings and queens would dance in the realms of the Black Rose
Play me the melodies so I might know
So I can tell my children, oh

My Roisin Dubh is my one and only true love
It was a joy that Joyce brought to me
Wild William Butler Yeats
And Oscar, he's going Wilde

Ah sure, Brendan where have you Behan?
Looking for a girl with green eyes
My dark Rosaleen is my only colleen
That Georgie knows Best

But Van is the man
Starvation once again
Drinking whiskey in the jar-o
Synge's Playboy of the Western World

As Shaw, Sean I was born and reared there
Where the Mountains of Mourne come down to the sea
Is such a long, long way from Tipperary
Tell me the legends of long ago
When the kings and queens would dance in the realm of the Black Rose
Play me the melodies I want to know
So I can teach my children, oh Pray tell me the story of young CuChulainn
How his eyes were dark his expression sullen
And how he'd fight and always won
And how they cried when he was fallen

Oh tell me the story of the Queen of this land
And how her sons died at her own hand
And how fools obey commands
Oh tell me the legends of long ago

Where the mountains of Mourne come down to the sea
Will she no come back to me
Will she no come back to me

Oh Shenandoah I hear you calling
Far away you rolling river
Roll down the mountain side
On down on down go lassie go

Oh Tell me the legends of long ago
When the kings and queens would dance in the realms of the Black Rose
Play me the melodies so I might know
So I can tell my children, oh My Roisin Dubh is my one and only true love
It was a joy that Joyce brought to me
Wild William Butler Yeats
And Oscar, he's going Wilde

Ah sure, Brendan where have you Behan?
Looking for a girl with green eyes
My dark Rosaleen is my only colleen
That Georgie knows Best

But Van is the man
Starvation once again
Drinking whiskey in the jar-o
Synge's Playboy of the Western World

As Shaw, Sean I was born and reared there
Where the Mountains of Mourne come down to the sea
Is such a long, long way from Tipperary Roisin Dubh - Thin Lizzy "We were born before the wind
Also younger than the sun
And the bonny boat was one
As we sail into the mystic
Hark, now here the sailor's cry..."
- Van Morrison
"Into the Mystic" "I care not what the sailors say..."
W.B. Yeats
Crazy Jane Reproved Jane says "I'm done with Sergio.
He treats me like a rag doll."
- Jane's Addiction
"Jane Says" "It's the same old theme since nineteen-sixteen.
In your head, in your head they're still fighting"
- The Cranberries
"Zombie" Easter, 1916
Sixteen Dead Men The Dolls A doll in the doll-makers house
Looks at the cradle and balls:
That is an insult to us.
But the oldest of all the dolls
Who had seen, being kept for show,
Generations of his sort,
Out-screams the whole shelf: 'Although
There's not a man can report
Evil of this place,
The man and the woman bring Hither to our disgrace,
A noisy and filthy thing.'
Hearing him groan and stretch
The doll-maker's wife is aware
Her husband has heard the wretch,
And crouched by the arm of his chair,
She murmurs into his ear,
Head upon shoulder leant:
My dear, my dear, oh dear,
It was an accident. We were born before the wind
Also younger than the sun
Ere the bonnie boat was won as we sailed into the mystic
Hark, now hear the sailors cry
Smell the sea and feel the sky
Let your soul and spirit fly into the mystic

And when that fog horn blows I will be coming home
And when the fog horn blows I want to hear it
I don't have to fear it

And I want to rock your gypsy soul
Just like way back in the days of old
And magnificently we will flow into the mystic

When that fog horn blows you know I will be coming home
And when that fog horn whistle blows I got to hear it
I don't have to fear it

And I want to rock your gypsy soul
Just like way back in the days of old
And together we will flow into the mystic
Come on girl...

Too late to stop now... Jane goes to the store at 8:00
She walk up on St. Andrews
She waits and gets her dinner there
She pulls her dinner from her pocket
Jane says "I've never been in love
I don't know what it is."
Only knows if someone wants her
"I want them if they want me
I only know they want me"

She gets mad and she starts to cry
She takes a swing but she cant hit!
She don't mean no harm
She just dont know what else to do about it Jane says "I'm done with Sergio
He treats me like a ragdoll"
She hides the television
Says "I don't owe him nothing,
But if he comes back again
Tell him to wait right here for me
Or just... try again tomorrow
I'm gonna kick tomorrow
Gonna kick tomorrow."

Jane says "Have you seen my wig around?
I feel naked without it."
She knows they all want her to go
But that's O.K. man
She dont like them anyway "Jane Says" by Jane's Addiction Jane says "I'm goin away to Spain
When I get my money saved
I'm gonna start tomorrow
I'm gonna kick tomorrow
Gonna kick tomorrow." She gets mad and starts to cry
She takes a swing but she cant hit
She don't mean no harm
She just don't know what else to do about it Words for Music Perhaps Which of Yeats' poems have you enjoyed the most?

Which of Yeats' common themes do you find yourself identifying with the most?

Explain your rationale. I
SWEAR by what the sages spoke
Round the Mareotic Lake
That the Witch of Atlas knew,
Spoke and set the cocks a-crow.

Swear by those horsemen, by those women
Complexion and form prove superhuman,
That pale, long-visaged company
That air in immortality
Completeness of their passions won;
Now they ride the wintry dawn
Where Ben Bulben sets the scene.

Here s the gist of what they mean. II
Many times man lives and dies
Between his two eternities,
That of race and that of soul,
And ancient Ireland knew it all.
Whether man die in his bed
Or the rifle knocks him dead,
A brief parting from those dear
Is the worst man has to fear.
Though grave-diggers' toil is long,
Sharp their spades, their muscles strong.
They but thrust their buried men
Back in the human mind again. III
You that Mitchel's prayer have heard,
'Send war in our time, O Lord!'
Know that when all words are said
And a man is fighting mad,
Something drops from eyes long blind,
He completes his partial mind,
For an instant stands at ease,
Laughs aloud, his heart at peace.
Even the wisest man grows tense
With some sort of violence
Before he can accomplish fate,
Know his work or choose his mate. IV
Poet and sculptor, do the work,
Nor let the modish painter shirk
What his great forefathers did.
Bring the soul of man to God,
Make him fill the cradles right.

Measurement began our might:
Forms a stark Egyptian thought,
Forms that gentler Phidias wrought.

Michael Angelo left a proof
On the Sistine Chapel roof,
Where but half-awakened Adam
Can disturb globe-trotting Madam
Till her bowels are in heat,
proof that there's a purpose set
Before the secret working mind:
Profane perfection of mankind. V
Irish poets, learn your trade,
Sing whatever is well made,
Scorn the sort now growing up
All out of shape from toe to top,
Their unremembering hearts and heads
Base-born products of base beds.
Sing the peasantry, and then
Hard-riding country gentlemen,
The holiness of monks, and after
Porter-drinkers' randy laughter;
Sing the lords and ladies gay
That were beaten into the clay
Through seven heroic centuries;
Cast your mind on other days
That we in coming days may be
Still the indomitable Irishry. VI
Under bare Ben Bulben's head
In Drumcliff churchyard Yeats is laid.
An ancestor was rector there
Long years ago, a church stands near,
By the road an ancient cross.
No marble, no conventional phrase;
On limestone quarried near the spot
By his command these words are cut:
Cast a cold eye
On life, on death.
Horseman, pass by!
Quattrocento put in paint
On backgrounds for a God or Saint
Gardens where a soul's at ease;
Where everything that meets the eye,
Flowers and grass and cloudless sky,
Resemble forms that are or seem
When sleepers wake and yet still dream.
And when it's vanished still declare,
With only bed and bedstead there,
That heavens had opened.

Gyres run on;
When that greater dream had gone
Calvert and Wilson, Blake and Claude,
Prepared a rest for the people of God,
Palmer's phrase, but after that
Confusion fell upon our thought. Under Ben Bulben And then a counter-truth filled out its play,
'The Countess Cathleen' was the name I gave it;
She, pity-crazed, had given her soul away,
But masterful Heaven had intervened to save it.
I thought my dear must her own soul destroy
So did fanaticism and hate enslave it,
And this brought forth a dream and soon enough
This dream itself had all my thought and love.

And when the Fool and Blind Man stole the bread
Cuchulain fought the ungovernable sea;
Heart-mysteries there, and yet when all is said
It was the dream itself enchanted me:
Character isolated by a deed
To engross the present and dominate memory.
Players and painted stage took all my love,
And not those things that they were emblems of.

III

Those masterful images because complete
Grew in pure mind, but out of what began?
A mound of refuse or the sweepings of a street,
Old kettles, old bottles, and a broken can,
Old iron, old bones, old rags, that raving slut
Who keeps the till. Now that my ladder's gone,
I must lie down where all the ladders start
In the foul rag and bone shop of the heart. I

I sought a theme and sought for it in vain,
I sought it daily for six weeks or so.
Maybe at last, being but a broken man,
I must be satisfied with my heart, although
Winter and summer till old age began
My circus animals were all on show,
Those stilted boys, that burnished chariot,
Lion and woman and the Lord knows what.

II

What can I but enumerate old themes,
First that sea-rider Oisin led by the nose
Through three enchanted islands, allegorical dreams,
Vain gaiety, vain battle, vain repose,
Themes of the embittered heart, or so it seems,
That might adorn old songs or courtly shows;
But what cared I that set him on to ride,
I, starved for the bosom of his faery bride. The Countess Cathleen In Paradise

All the heavy days are over;
Leave the body's coloured pride
Underneath the grass and clover,
With the feet laid side by side.

Bathed in flaming founts of duty
She'll not ask a haughty dress;
Carry all that mournful beauty
To the scented oaken press.

Did the kiss of Mother Mary
Put that music in her face?
Yet she goes with footstep wary,
Full of earth's old timid grace.

'Mong the feet of angels seven
What a dancer glimmering!
All the heavens bow down to Heaven,
Flame to flame and wing to wing. ANIMALS DESERTION THE CIRCUS Final Exam Format: Part 1:

Part 2:

Part 3:

Part 4:

Part 5: Author Identification
(20 questions)

Character Identification
(10 questions)

True/False
(20 questions across 4 sections)

Short Answer
(one question - 5/6 sentences)

Essay
(one question - 3 paragraphs) ALL MAJOR WORKS MAJOR CHARACTERS Ancient & Anglo Saxon
Medieval & Elizabethan
Restoration & Romanticism
19th & 20th century YEATS and ROMANTICISM WAITING FOR GODOT
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