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group presentation

expectancy theory

Ameen mousa

on 27 July 2015

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Transcript of group presentation

Ameen Mousa
Jinpeng Bai(Jeremy)
Yang Lu(Lena)
Varun Aiyappa
Group Creative Process

Each team member contributed different ideas to the discussion. We then went ahead to see if it was feasible? How did it fit into our topic, and how it helped us shape our presentation?
Expectancy Theory
Group reflection
Group Reflection

Our leadership style consists of a Democratic style.

How this is positive?

Tasks got done on time. (Group culture)

At most times, group members were aware of what was expected from them.

Some people were happy to listen, whilst others wanted to take charge. (Reduced conflict)

How this is negative?

Participation during meetings took a hit because of Easter break. (Time conflict)

Communication during class time- effective because everyone was there & task focused.

Meetings were successful because we were able to reach a consensus every time.

Email- effective sharing of file information and kept everyone up to date on individual inputs.

Texting- Great for checking what has been done and talking about which aspects need to be improved.
Expectancy Theory
Motivation Factors:
1) Expectancy
3) Valence

An individual tends to act in a certain way counting on the fact that his act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome to him. It depends on the value that he places on the goal or reward(Singh & Chhabra,2004)
People have different perceptions about the level of difficulty of the task and their capacity and confidence in tackling that task.People believe that their effort will lead to achieving desired performance. People need to have some sort of control over the outcome if expectancy has to be high(Lunenburg,2011).
It is the extent to which a person believes that the effort he puts in would lead to the completion of that task(Singh & Chhabra,2004).Every individual has a different idea about rewards for their performance if expectations are met(Robbins & DeCenzo, 2005).
The whole theory is based on the idea that people consider the fact that there is a connection between the work they put in, the performance achieved due to it and the rewards they will receive(Lunenburg,2011). All the variables must have a high positive value as they are all multiples. If any variable is close to 0 then the performance will be 0(Singh & Chhabra,2004).
1)How hard do I have to work to achieve a certain level of performance?
2)Can I actually achieve that level?
3)What reward will performing at that level get me?
4)How attractive is this reward to me, and does it help achieve my goals?
...(Zurbriggen, 2011).
Conchie (2013) claims that in the workplace motivation = stimulating
employees need to feel encouraged (Nasri & Charfeddme, 2012).
Managers play a big role in terms of motivation (Pounds, 2006).
Intrinsic motivation: Motivation that is driven by enjoyment (Clegg, Kornberger, & Pitsis, 2011).
Extrinsic motivation: Motivations are rewards (Clegg, Kornberger, & Pitsis, 2011).
high relationship between rewards and performance (Deeprose, 1994).

All in all, this theory is very logical because it is of human nature to work harder if the employee feels he will contribute to the outcome and only if he thinks he will be rewarded for this exerted effort.

From what has been discussed above,we can conclude that motivation is affected by three factors,which are
2)Instrumentality and

Meanwhile the expectancy theory provides us with an inspiration to link performance with rewards, consequently employees performances can be predicted. Moreover,it exerts positive effect to organizations in terms of the employees displaying more loyalty and giving higher-quality performance
1. The Expectancy Theory provides a mathematical way to link performance with rewards, and thus managers can predict employee's performances in some way. (Darboe, 2003)
3. Because of increased recognition and rewards, employees will strive to perfom better and be more loyal to organizations.
4.The Expectancy Theory actually emphasizes self interest in the alignment of rewards with employee wants (Luthans,2006).
2. In Expectancy Theory, employees are motivated to achieve desired outcomes because of the drive of desired rewards. Thus, this theory stresses the importance of recognition of employee's performances.
1. Unconscious emotions were concerned only in recent studies: not all motivations are derived consciously (Miner,2011).

2. The theory does not thoroughly explain how employees
update and change their beliefs
over time (Mitchell & Biglan, 1971).
3. Motivation derived from desired rewards may
be the
only factor
which affects the actual performance, in fact,
resources, employee's abilities and knowledge
are also essential (Ott, Parkes & Simpson, 2003).
'Employee's behaviors will be affected not only by their choice but also by the degree to which they
outcomes to be probable
' (Darboe, 2003, pp.28).
4. The actual rewards may differ from the desired ones.
material v.s. non-material
extrinsic v.s. intrinsic
'There may be a
substantial discrepancy
between anticipated satisfaction from an outcome or valence, and the actual satisfaction that it provides, that is, its value' (Darboe, 2003, P.28).
5. Sometimes performance is
hard to quantify
, thus, the result may not always be valid.
short-term focus v.s long-term focus
Managers need to understand individual's needs according to the different perceptions of getting rewarded to establish different reward systems. On the other hand, enhancing communication, emotion control and employees sense of belonging should be considered when managers seek solutions to develop organizations.
Clegg, S., Kornberger, M. & Pitsis, T. (2011). Managing and Organizations: An introduction to theory & Practice. (3 ed.), London: Sage.
Conchie, S. M. (2013). Transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation, and trust: A moderated-mediated model of workplace safety. Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(2), 198-210. doi:10.1037/a0031805
Darboe, K. (2003). An empirical study of the social correlates of jobs satisfaction among plant science graduates of a mid Western university: a test of Victor H. Vroom's (1964) Expectancy Theory. Lanham, MA: University Press of America, Inc.
Deeprose, D. (1994). How to recognise and reward employees. New York: AMACOM.
Lunenburg, F. C. (n.d.). Expectancy theory of motivation: Motivating by altering expectations . (2011). International journal of management, business, and administration, 15(1),
Luthans, F. (2006). Organizational behavior (11th ed.). Ithaca, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Mitchell, T. R., & Biglan, A. (1971). Instrumentality theories: current uses in psychology. Journal of Psychological Bulletin.
Miner, B. J. (2011). Organizational behavior (6th ed.). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Nasri, W., & Charfeddme, L. (2012). Motivating Salespeople to Contribute to Marketing Intelligence Activities: An Expectancy Theory Approach. International Journal Of Marketing Studies, 4(1), 168-175. doi:10.5539/ijms.v4nlp168
Ott, J. S., & Parkes, J. S., & Simpson, B. R. (2003). Classic readings in organizational behavior (3nd ed.) Toronto, ON, Canada: Tomson Learning Inc.
Pounds, J. (2006). The great motivational myth. Management Services, 50(3), 40-43.
Robbins, S. P., & DeCenzo, D. A. (2005). Fundamentals of management. (5th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education ,Inc.
Singh, B. P., & Chhabra, T. N. (2004). Organisation theory and behaviour. (4th ed.). Delhi: Dhanpat rai & co.(pvt.)ltd.
Zurbriggen, E. L. (2011). Implicit Motives and Sexual Conservatism as Predictors of Sxeual Behaviors. Journal Of Social Psychology, 151(5), 535-555.
Thank you
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