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Rizal's First Homecoming
Transcript of Rizal's First Homecoming
1887-1888 People who warned Rizal not to come home: “Your Advice that I live in Madrid and continue to write from there is very benevolent but I cannot accept it. I cannot endure the life in Madrid where everything is a voice in a wilderness. My parents want to see me, and I want to see them also. All my life I desire to live in my country by the side of my family. Until now I am not Europeanized like the Filipinos of Madrid; I always like to return to the country of my birth.” INTRODUCTION: “All the alluring beauties of foreign countries and all the beautiful memories of his sojourn in alien lands could neither make Rizal forget his fatherland nor turn his back to his own Nationality.” After five years of memorable sojourn to Europe, Rizal returned to the Philippines in August 1887 and practiced medicine in Calamba. He lived a quiet life as a country doctor until his enemies persecuted him, even threatening to kill him. Paciano (his brother)
Silvestre Ubaldo (his bro-in-law)
Chengoy (Jose M. Cecilio)
Other friends. However, Rizal did not heed their warning but instead he was really determined to come home. DECISION TO RETURN HOME Reasons why Rizal returned to Philippines: To operate on his mother’s eyes.
To serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanish tyrants.
To find out for himself how the Noli Me Tangere and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines.
To inquire why Leonor Rivera remained silent. Letter to Blumentritt
(written in Geneva on June 19,1887) Letter to his Father:
(June 29,1887) “On the 15th of July, at the latest, I shall embark for our country, so that from the 15th to the 30th of August, we shall see each other”. DELIGHTFUL TRIP TO Left Rome by Train for Marseilles
July 3,1887 – boarded the Djemnah
Enroute to the Orient via the Suez Canal
July 30- at Saigon, transferred Haiphong Manila.
August 2- Haiphong left Saigon for Manila ARRIVAL IN MANILA Near midnight of August 5 – arrived in Manila.
He found Manila the same as when he left it five years ago. Same old churches and buildings, same holes in the road, same boats on the Pasig river, and the same heary walls surrounding the city. HAPPY HOMECOMING August 8- he returned to Calamba.
His family became worried for his safety.
Rizal established a medical clinic.
His first patient – his mother.
He was called “Doctor Uliman”.
Within a few months, he earned P900 as a physician. By February 1888, he earned a total of p5000.
He opened a small gymnasium for young folks, where he introduced gymnastics, fencing ans shooting.
His failure – to see Leonor Rivera. Fr. Jose Rodriguez – published a series of eight pamphlets under the general heading Cuestiones de Sumo Interes (Questions of Supreme Interest)
o Porque no los he de leer?
o Guardaos de ellos. Porque?
o Y que me dice usted de la peste?
o Porque triunfan los impios?
o Cree usted que de versa no hay purgatorio?
o Hay o no hay Infierno?
o Que le parece a usted de esos libelos?
o Confesion o condenacion?
It reached the Spanish Cortes in Spain.
Gen. Jose de Salamanca (April 1, 1888)
Gen. Luis M. de Pando (April12)
Sr. Fernando Vida (June 11)
Vicente Barrantes (Spanish Academican of Madrid)
STORM OVER THE NOLI He received a letter from Governor General Emilio Terrero.
He went to Manila and appeared at Malacañang.
Accused that Noli contained subversive ideas.
Rizal visited the Jesuit Fathers to ask for the copy he sent them.
His former professors:
o Fr. Francisco de Paula Sanchez
o Fr. Jose Bech
o Fr. Federico Faura
Rizal’s powerful enemies:
o Archbishop of Manila – Msgr. Pedro Payo (a Dominican)
o Fr. Rector Gregorio Echavarria (UST)
o Fr. Salvador Font (head of Commission of Censorship)
Publishing of Noli was banned. ATTACKERS OF THE NOLI Father Font – printed his report and distributed copies of it in order to discredit the controversial novel. DEFENDERS OF NOLI Marcelo H. del Pilar
Dr. Antonio Ma, Regidor
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Other Filipino Reformists in foreign lands
Don Segismundo Moret, former minister of the crown; Dr. Miguel Morayta, historian and statesman; and Professor Blumentritt, scholar and educator, read and liked the novel.
Rev. Vicente Garcia, a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar wrote a defense of the noli. (Published in Singapore – July 18,1888
o Rizal cannot be an “ignorant man”, as Fr. Rodriguez alleged, because he was a graduate of Spanish universities and was a recipient of scholastic honors.
o Rizal does not attack the Church and Spain, as Fr, Rodriguez claimed, because what Rizal attacked in Noli were the bad Spanish officials and not Spain, and the bad and corrupt Friars, and not the Church.
o Fr. Rodriguez sais that those who read the Noli commit a mortal sin, since he had read the novel, therefore he also commits a mortal sin.
Made walking tours of the verdant countrysides, discussed topics of common interest, fencing, shooting, hunting and painting. What marred Rizal’s happy days in Calamba:
oThe death of his older sister, Olimpia.
oGroundless tales circulated by his enemies that he was a “German Spy”, an agent of Bismarck, a protestant, a Mason, a witch, a soul beyond salvation, etc.
RIZAL AND TAVIEL DE ANDRADE
CALAMBA’S AGRARIAN TROUBLE
Gov. Gen. Terrero – ordered a government investigation of the friar estates
December 30,1887 – civil Gov. of Laguna directed the municipal authorities of Calamba to investigate the agrarian conditions of their locality.
Rizal’s findings were the following:
1. The hacienda of the Dominican Order comprised not only the lands around Calamba, but also the town of Calamba.
2. The profits of the Dominican Order continually increased because of the arbitrary increase of the rentals paid by the tenants.
3. The hacienda owner never contributed a single centavo for the celebration of the town fiesta, for the education of the children, and for the improvement of agriculture.
4. Tenants who had spent much labor in clearing the lands were dispossessed of said lands for flimsy reasons.
5. High rates of interest were charged the tenants for delayed payment of rentals, and when the rentals could not be paid, the hacienda management confiscated their carabaos, tools, and homes.
FAREWELL TO CALAMBA 2 Reasons why Rizal must go:
oHis presence in Calamba were jeopardizing the safety and happiness of his family and friends.
oHe could fight better his enemies and serve his country’s cause with greater efficacy by writing in foreign countries.
They became friends.